LORD  BYRON  and  his  TIMES
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Conversations on Religion, with Lord Byron

First Conversation
Kennedy on Scripture
Second Conversation
Third Conversation
Fourth Conversation
Fifth Conversation
Memoir of Byron
Byron’s Character
‣ Appendix
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Missolunghi, March 4, 1824.
My Dear Doctor,

I have to thank you for your two very kind letters, both received at the same time, and one long after its date. I am not unaware of the precarious state of my health, nor am, nor have been, deceived on that subject. But it is proper that I should remain in Greece; and it were better to die doing something than nothing. My presence here has been supposed so far useful as to have prevented confusion from becoming worse confounded, at least for the present. Should I become, or be deemed useless or superfluous, I am ready to retire; but in the interim I am not to consider personal consequences; the rest is in the hands of Providence,—as indeed are all things. I shall, however, observe your instructions, and indeed did so, as far as regards abstinence, for some time past. Besides the tracts, &c., which you have sent for distribution, one of the English artificers (hight Brownbill, a tinman) left to my charge a number of Greek Testaments, which I will endeavour to distribute properly. The Greeks complain that the translation is not correct, nor in good Romaic: Bambas
can decide on that point. I am trying to reconcile the clergy to the distribution, which (without due regard to their hierarchy) they might contrive to impede or neutralize in the effect, from their power over their people*. Mr. Brownbill has gone to the islands, having some apprehension for his life (not from the priests however), and apparently preferring rather to be a saint than a martyr, although his apprehensions of becoming the latter were probably unfounded. All the English artificers accompanied him, thinking themselves in danger, on account of some troubles here, which have apparently subsided.

I have been interrupted by a visit from P. Mavrocordato and others since I began this letter, and must close it hastily, for the boat is announced as ready to sail. Your future convert, Hato, or Hatagée, appears to me lively, and intelligent, and promising, and possesses an interesting countenance. With regard to her disposition I can say little, but Millingen, who has the mother (who is a middle-aged woman of good character) in his house as a domestic (although their family was in good worldly circumstances previous to the revolution), speaks well of both, and he is to be relied on. As far as I know, I have only seen the child a few times with her mother, and what I have seen is favourable, or I should not take so much interest in her behalf. If she turns out well, my idea would be to send her to my daughter in England

* That this was not the case, see Dr. Meyer’s Letter.

(if not to respectable persons in Italy), and so to provide for her as to enable her to live with reputation either singly or in marriage, if she arrive at maturity. I will make proper arrangements about her expenses through Messrs.
Barff and Hancock, and the rest I leave to your discretion and to Mrs. K.’s, with a great sense of obligation for your kindness in undertaking her temporary superintendence.

Of public matters here I have little to add to what you will already have heard. We are going on as well as we can, and with the hope and the endeavour to do better. Believe me,

[From Lord Byron.]
Missolunghi, March 10, 1824.
Dear Sir,

You could not disapprove of the motto to the Telegraph more than I did, and do; but this is the land of liberty, where most people do as they please, and few as they ought.

I have not written, nor am inclined to write, for that or for any other paper, but have suggested to them, over
and over, a change of the motto and style. However, I do not think that it will turn out either an irreligious or a levelling publication, and they promise due respect to both churches and things, i. e., the editors do.

If Bambas would write for the Greek Chronicle, he might have his own price for articles.

There is a slight demur about Hato’s voyage, her mother wishing to go with her, which is quite natural, and I have not the heart to refuse it; for even Mahomet made a law, that in the division of captives the child should never be separated from the mother. But this may make a difference in the arrangement, although the poor woman (who has lost half her family in the war) is, as I said, of good character, and of mature age, so as to render her respectability not liable to suspicion. She has heard, it seems, from Prevesa, that her husband is no longer there. I have consigned your Bibles to Dr. Meyer; and I hope that the said Doctor may justify your confidence; nevertheless, I shall keep an eye upon him. You may depend upon my giving the society as fair play as Mr. Wilberforce himself would; and any other commission for the good of Greece will meet with the same attention on my part.

I am trying, with some hope of eventual success, to re-unite the Greeks, especially as the Turks are expected in force, and that shortly. We must meet them as we may, and fight it out as we can.

I rejoice to hear that your school prospers, and I assure you that your good wishes are reciprocal. The
weather is so much finer, that I get a good deal of moderate exercise in boats and on horseback, and am willing to hope that my health is not worse than when you kindly wrote to me.
Dr. Bruno can tell you that I adhere to your regimen, and more, for I do not eat any meat, even fish.

Believe me ever yours,
Very faithfully and truly,
(Signed) N. Bn.
Dr. Kennedy, &c. &c. &c.
Argostoli, Cephalonia.

P.S.—The mechanics (six in number) were all pretty much of the same mind. Brownbill was but one. Perhaps they are less to blame than is imagined, since Colonel Stanhope is said to have told them, “that he could not positively say their lives were safe,” I should like to know where our life is safe, either here or any where else? With regard to a place of safety, at least such hermetically-sealed safety as these persons appeared to desiderate, it is not to be found in Greece at any rate; but Missolunghi was supposed to be the place where they would be useful, and their risk was no greater than that of others.

Missolunghi, 10th Feb., 1824.
Dear Sir,

From the Honourable Colonel Stanhope you will have heard of the praiseworthy desire, and the good hope which we entertain, of introducing and spreading civilization among this people, by means of the Sacred Scriptures, if the government of liberated Greece should be confided to those hands which all good men expect, and if Lord Byron should preserve that influence which his generosity has merited for him. I hope to be able to co-operate in some measure in this excellent work, and shall certainly do it with pleasure. I am perfectly persuaded that there is no better means of eradicating the vile superstitions and the barbarity which blind this people (without precipitating them into all the evils which spring from the contrary excess, that is from atheism), than the propagation of the light of the Gospel. But before this can produce any sensible effect, there are many dangers to shun, and many obstacles to overcome, which in a great degree may be accomplished by other measures. The direction of a Journal, entrusted to persons of good intentions and good understanding, appears to me the most efficacious. A gazette has been commenced in Greek, and shortly another will follow in Italian. For the Greek, principally, there is a great
want of correct and intelligent writers. I believe that
Professor Bambas is one of the best among the Greeks, and no one seems more adapted than he is for so important a charge; but we are not able to offer him a situation equivalent to that in which he is now established, and the most ardent patriotism would be required to supply what is wanting. But, perhaps, the time is not far distant, in which we shall be able to invite him without compromising ourselves, and in the mean time, if it would not be displeasing to him to send us some article in Greek for the Gazette of Missolunghi, it would be very gratifying to the government here, as well as to Lord Byron. I beg you to present our respects to him, and communicate to us his decision.

You will have heard something about our adventures; mine particularly were somewhat romantic. I was five days a prisoner of Yusuff Pasha, with no small danger at first, since our little bark appeared to the frightened imagination of the Turks to be a brûlota; then, well treated, and at last liberated without any damage.

Present, I pray you, my respects to your lady, and believe me to be always,

[From Count Gamba.]
Missolunghi, Feb. 24th, 1824.
Dear Sir,

My liberation was truly romantic; the greatest proof which we can have of it is, that none of you in Cephalonia will believe the story of my friend Spiro Valsamachi. But whatever may be your incredulity, it is altogether true, because the whole was narrated to me by the Dey himself. But I do not wish to yield the whole merit to Signore Spiro; but peace to these fooleries.

We have expected the articles from* Professor Bamba, but hitherto in vain; I wish, however, to ascribe this to. the want of opportunities. Make every effort to stimulate him. We shall now publish a new gazette in English and Italian—in short, in every language in which the articles shall be despatched to us. It will be entitled the “Greek Telegraph.” The object of the gazette will be to give a faithful narration of the affairs of Greece to those nations of Europe which take an interest in them. I hope you will contribute some articles. You must forward them to “Signore Meyer, Director of the Greek Chronicle.” My lord employs all his influence to inspire the Greeks with more Christian and humane sentiments even towards their enemies.

* Professor Bamba acceded to this request, and he continued to write till the Ionian government prohibited all such correspondence, whether literary, moral, or religious.

He obtained, the other day, two Turkish slaves, and set them at liberty, and he will immediately do the same to twenty-four women and children, who have been here in misery and slavery ever since the first breaking out of the revolution. A
little girl about eight years of age, and who wished not to return among the Turks, remained behind. She is of a fine form of person, and exhibits the best inclinations of mind. It would truly be a betraying of her at her age, in which the national prejudices and superstitions cannot have taken deep root, to leave her a prey to the brutal customs of the Turks. The intention of my lord is to send her to Italy, or to England, to his sister, for her education, that a brighter prospect of life may be opened for her, than could have been the case in her own barbarous and insensate country. He would wish her, however, to repose for a few months in the islands, in order that she may learn a little Italian, and also wait for the summer, before sending her onwards. If you remain in the island, he would wish to send her to you and your lady for a couple of months, it being well understood that the expense for her maintenance and education be placed to the account of my lord. I wish you to give me a speedy answer. Recommend me to the remembrance of our common friends, and believe me to be always

Your devoted servant
(Signed) Pietro Gamba.
Dr. Kennedy,
Missolonghi, January 8th, 1824.
Dear Sir,

You will excuse my taking the liberty of addressing you, when I inform you that the object is moral education and religious instruction.

The government here is making a grand progress towards civilization, but they require assistance.

The first measure of importance to be promoted, is moral education. To this end, I have formed here a committee of the most virtuous natives in the place, consisting of a president, secretary, and twelve members. These gentlemen have pledged themselves to meet frequently to further the diffusion of light. I have given them the best advice I could on the subject. If you could do anything towards the advancement of the measure, you would confer a lasting benefit on Greece.

The other measure of vast importance is that of affording them a knowledge of the Scriptures. The first and safest step to be taken in this work is that of sending here a quantity of Bibles in modern Greek.

I doubt not but that you can afford, through the medium of your friends and societies in Europe, assistance towards the promotion of both these ends.

Lord Byron has great interest here, and has exercised it solely in doing good. His lordship desires his kindest remembrances by me.


I beg of you to address yourself either to Lord Byron, or to Dr. J. J. Meyer, on matters relative to books and education.

I am,
Your most humble servant,
(Signed) Leicester Stanhope.
Dr. Kennedy,

[From the Hon. Colonel Stanhope.]
Missolunghi, February 7th, 1825.
Dear Sir,

An answer is due to you for your very obliging letter. I do warmly sympathise in all its contents.

I am most happy to learn that you have written to Corfu and to Malta, requesting that Bibles may be sent to Greece. Should they arrive within two months, I should be glad to have some sent to the seat of the Greek government. After that, I shall be on my way back to England. One of our mechanics of the Arsenal brought with him five hundred New Testaments. I desired him to deliver them out with extreme caution. He, at my recommendation, placed fifty of them at the disposal of Dr. Meyer, who had promised me to distribute them to the most influential, who could read them in the villages and churches.

You are very good in taking such efficient measures to establish Lancasterian schools in Greece. All we require is, three or four good schoolmasters, with whom I
would undertake to spread the system. In all the great towns it is my intention to establish, as here, a school committee of worthy men.

I wish it were possible to obtain some of the works that Mr. S. Wilson has translated. I have written to him, but have received no answer.

I wish you could establish at Cephalonia* a good Lancasterian school for the supply of schoolmasters. This measure, united with a school-book society, is what is most wanted; but nothing can be done without Bibles in the mother tongue.

I intend to depart from this in about a week, for the purpose of proceeding and remaining for a time at the seat of the government. There I shall at all times be happy to receive your commands and instructions.

Our dispensary succeeds beyond all our expectation.

It is maintained by the rich, who pay nothing for advice, and but a moderate price for their medicines.

P. S. I wish you could get the enlightened and excellent Lord Guildford to take an active part in the promotion of our schools.

* There are Lancasterian schools for boys in all the Ionian Islands, and they appear to be conducted with strict attention. Government has not only given its patronage to these institutions, but has exhibited a particular interest in their success. Dr. Politi, a protégé of Lord Guildford, was Inspector General. Since his lordship’s death I am not sure who is the ostensible Director.

[From Dr. Meyer, a Swiss Physician, settled in Missolunghl,
and Editor of the Greek Gazette.]
Missolunghi, March 4th, 1824.

I have received your letter, from which I am confirmed in the sentiments that Colonel Stanhope caused me to form of you.

The box, with the religious and moral tracts, are at present in the hands of Lord Byron, who will consign them to me to-day.

We feel here, perhaps more than in any other part of Greece, the necessity of imparting instruction, and that the only basis on which a positive liberty can be founded is that of religion and morality.

The inhabitants of the Koreli repose so much confidence in me, that they have entrusted to me the organizing of. . . *. After I had spoken to them of the important results that might ensue from the reading of the Bible and moral treatises, they have consented to form a society for the Bible, and for the establishment of a school. Many excellent patriots and Christians are united with me in committee, desirous that I should endeavour, in the first place, to disperse the Bible, and then attempt the formation of a school.

The Bible and treatises that I have received have been distributed to priests who are well informed, and to esta-

* Torn by the seal.

blishments which are termed a school: very pleasing results have been witnessed, as a priest (of Kraveri) thus writes me.

“I received your Bibles on Sunday last before the church, and I commenced reading under a plane-tree. I was surrounded by men, women, and children. ‘What book is that you are reading?’ they inquired. I explained to them what it was, and for my first public lecture, I selected Christ’s sermon on the Mount. The people were astonished at hearing words to which they had never before listened; and I was compelled to promise that I would read the Gospel to them every sabbath.”

With respect to the school, I have fixed on the Lancasterian method as that which is likely to produce a more quick return than any other. In a short time I hope I shall have two masters who will be capable of instructing children. The funds for this institution are almost all gained by subscription, and other assured means, for a house, a garden, for the payment of the masters, &c.

This slight recital will enable you to perceive that it is my intention to lay a moral and religious basis, as conductor of the Greek Chronicle, and as one of the editors of the Greek Telegraph, which in a few days will make its appearance. I am perfectly convinced that religion and morality alone can adorn, or form the liberty so much desired by the Greeks: without these enlightening graces, the Greeks would never be worthy of so great a good; which, except united with religion and morality, would prove as a sword in the hands of a child.


Books for education, and for moral purposes, even in different languages, would be very desirable. May I entreat you to procure for me as many as you possibly can?

I shall have the honour of writing to you more fully in my next letter. Excuse me in the meantime. Accept of my most distinguished consideration.

[From Dr. Bruno, Physician to Lord Byron.]
Missolunghi, March 3rd, 1824.
Dear Sir,

You judge rightly in writing to me in English, which I pray you to continue in your pleasing correspondence, which, besides being agreeable in other respects, serves me as a powerful stimulus to make more rapid progress in a language so useful in every point of view.

I shall write to you in Italian, because it is more easy for me. The wise counsels which you give me in your letter cannot be dictated by greater prudence than knowledge of the disease to which our noble Lord Byron is subject. They almost coincide with those which I have suggested to him, and which he puts in practice. I
do not find, however, at present, so great and imperious a necessity as should induce him to abandon Greece: 1st, because the air here is perhaps better than that of the islands. 2nd, because it appears to me that my lord is daily accustomed to the repeated motives of disturbance which the Greeks cause him. Hence the effect will be always lessening, and epileptic convulsions, as in the first attack, not having again appeared, there is reason to hope that they will not return during the absence of the physical causes, and the diminution of the moral.

With respect to the removal of the first, my lord shews himself most docile, but his temperament and his mind,—which rests not even during sleep,—prevent him from banishing the moral causes, to diminish which, there remains no other means than to induce him to use much exercise on horseback, or at sea; this at present cannot be done, in consequence of the nature of the streets, and the bad weather.

My lord principally, and all of us in his house, are fully converted to Methodism*, and you can count in

* The above sentence may appear to partake somewhat of mystification: but foreigners attach no ludicrous associations with the term Methodism; they are prepared to view it in its strict and legitimate sense: of this I could adduce examples. The Marchesa d’E., speaking of the sect, for it is applied to all serious persons, expressed a fear lest the Metodisti should introduce strange observances. “Who are they?” I asked. “In verità, I do not know,” she answered; “but the English call so and so (naming the persons) Metodisti, though I see nothing in them, but that they are more benevolent and devout than the rest.” Thus whatever stigma is attached to the name is affixed by the English themselves.

Though oddly expressed, I am certain Dr. Bruno writes in all seriousness.

me, one of your most warm proselytes, who wishes only for opportunities to prove it to you. I do not speak of the malady of his lordship, who is at present well, for want of time, and because I have written the history to our friend
Dr. Scott, who can shew it to you.

Here we labour strenuously for the advancement of the Greek cause; and we also make every effort to prepare their minds, that the principles to which you have converted us may be extended, and prosper with rapidity. Endeavour to maintain yourself in good health. Preserve your attachment to me, favour me with presenting my most respectful compliments to your amiable consort, and believe me to be

Your affectionate friend,
Dr. Kennedy,
Argostoli, Cephalonia.

[From Dr. Bruno, Physician to Lord Byron.]
Zante, May 18th, 1824.
Dear Sir,

I congratulate you on your project of publishing the religious conversations which you had with the honourable Lord Byron, of excellent memory; but I regret that I am not able to give further information respecting his intentions about Methodism, except that he was not decidedly attached to it, although he manifested
esteem for it, and especially for you, whom he considered as one of the most honest and excellent men that can be found.

I would tell you rather, that there scarcely passed a day which was not marked by some act of beneficence, in which the poor and the unhappy ever presented themselves at his lordship’s door without being certain of having the balm of consolation; that among the other fine qualities which adorned his lordship, predominated that of a compassionate heart, and a feeling beyond measure for the miserable and the unfortunate, and that his purse was always open in their favour. It is unnecessary for me to speak of his restoring to their country those Turks, amounting to twenty-five; this was entirely his own work; nor shall I notice to you the expenses he incurred, or his intentions with respect to the education of that little Turk and her mother, whom you were to have received, but who unfortunately wished to return to Prevesa, where the father of the child was. When any poor person was seriously sick, either by a fall or fracture, or other causes, my lord, without being asked, immediately sent me to these unhappy people to cure them, furnished them with medicines, and every other necessary assistance. He was one of the first in Missolunghi who gave money for establishing an hospital. Lord B. loved justice above all things, and would not tolerate a falsehood even in jest. He was endowed with a sincerity without example, and was tolerant in the highest degree in matters of religion. His benefactions in Cephalonia you know
sufficiently well. Those numerous instances of benevolence exhibited in Italy, and in other places, you will learn from
Fletcher, and from Count Gamba. With respect to the reading of the sacred Scriptures, it appears to me that he was occupied with it, since he kept it along with other books on his study table. I cannot tell you more, but I will confirm the truths which you shall write on this high personage, in order to increase his fame and glory.

With pleasure, however, I inform you, that you were the fortunate cause that I read and studied the New Testament profoundly, and acquired a great disposition towards conversion to Methodism. Nevertheless I am not yet entirely a Methodist with regard to the belief, but I am so perfectly, and among the most enthusiastic, for its political tendency to the public good*. Since I see in Methodism the united advantages of all other religions; and that which is of the greatest importance, and in which the churches with all their pomp, their monks, their priests, their religious ceremonies and other things are deficient—which, moreover, cost the

* Be it remembered that this term is his own, for I do not think Dr. K. ever used it; it is a word imported by the English among the Italians and other foreigners. It is evidently here used in a favourable sense, though too often the English apply it in ridicule of those who will not go to the same excess with themselves: lately, however, it has been found not emphatic enough, and the word “Saint” is now introduced to supply the defect. In the mind of Dr. Bruno, the term Methodism, or strict discipline, does not appear to be associated with any thing narrow, vulgar, or bigoted; indeed his admiration for the system, as he called it, is fully expressed.

people immense sums, that employed in other better work would be productive of the greatest advantage to the cause of humanity; that in this (“System—i. e. Methodism”) is wanting that numerous herd of friars, and priests, and other like drones, which form an imperium in imperio, and who, by all the means in their power, protect tyrants.

These men would lose much of their power, if the people were all Methodists, and vice versâ, people would make a vast acquisition towards liberty, by believing in the pure Gospel. On this account, especially, I have made other Methodists, and am busily occupied in increasing the number; and those whom I cannot persuade, or sufficiently convince with reasoning, and with proofs from the sacred Scriptures, and from the New Testament, I lead to Methodism by this political way, so beautiful and so good. But that which is most curious, is, that whilst I wish to convince others, and to bring them, as you call it, “into the good way,” I convince even myself more deeply, and become the more ardent for this noble and advantageous reformation.

I do not speak to you of the death of the worthy Lord Byron, in order not to irritate a wound which is sufficiently painful of itself. Let it suffice to mention, that there were two powerful causes of his death. A young English doctor, who, in order to make his court and please my lord, (who was repugnant to blood-letting,) opposed himself always to my warm entreaties, that blood should be drawn, and ridiculed the threat and the
prognostic which I made to Lord B. of his certain death, if he did not permit himself to be copiously bled. The other, an
individual in a responsible charge, (but most vulgar in his condition, and manners, and customs,) who two or three times a day visited Lord B., always repeating to him, “Do not listen to the physicians, eat, drink, do not let them touch your blood, and do what I tell you, I who am better than all the doctors”—this person is now fled from Missolunghi. In my heavy grief I shall always have the sweet consolation of knowing, that every individual of his lordship’s household, and all those who approached his Excellency, make ample testimony, and render me justice; as do, indeed, the English doctor, and two other consulting physicians, who all affirm that if my lord had adhered to my treatment alone, he would have been still certainly in life. The sad termination of Lord B.’s disease, and the most manifest signs of inflammation which were found on the brain, fully verify my prognostics; while on the other hand, the three other doctors were greatly astonished at the gross mistake which they had made in the diagnosis, cure, and prognosis of the disease, which they always asserted to be good, even to the last moments; so that whilst I cried that my lord was in a profound coma and near his end, they were so blind that they said he was in a deep sleep, which would prove useful to the salutary crisis which they went on prognosticating.

Accept my compliments, and present the same to your respected consort; to Mr. Muir, and to Count Della-
decima, to whom I pray you to read these few things respecting the malady of my lord. May you continue in good health, preserve for me your friendship, and believe me to be always

[From Mr. Millingen, an English Surgeon resident in Greece.]
Miisolunghi, July 12th 1824.

I was very ill when I had the honour of receiving your letter. The symptoms of my illness were so violent, that they totally prevented my perusing, much more answering it; and the weakness occasioned by my malady was so extreme, the relapses so frequent, that I have been, until now, totally unable to write. To you, fortunately, these circumstances, Sir, must prove indifferent, since I have it not in my power to tell you much respecting Lord Byron’s last moments, as far as your

* Since the above letter went to the press, I received the following intelligence:—“You have heard, I presume, of Dr. Bruno’s complete conversion. This he told me was effected in Switzerland. I have been informed by a relation of Lord C.’s, that he died at Napoli two years ago.” The writer adds, “I hope Moore will redeem Bruno’s character from a charge of mismanagement of Lord Byron’s case. I can prove from Bruno’s own letters, that he did everything, and suggested everything a good and able physician could have suggested,—but he was over-ruled by ignorance and obstinacy.”—1830.

letter alludes to. He died, to say the melancholy truth, like a man without religion. Truth also obliges me to say, that although I saw him almost daily, I never could perceive any change in his religious opinions. Allow me to remain,

Sir, yours obediently,
Dr. Kennedy,
Argostoli, Cephalonia.

[From Mr. Fletcher, the Valet of Lord Byron.]
Lazaretto, (Zante,) May 19th, 1824.
Honoured Sir,

I am extremely sorry I have not had it in my power to answer the kind letter with which you have honoured me, before this, being so very unwell, and so much hurt at the severe loss of my much-esteemed and ever-to-be-lamented lord and master. You wish me, Sir, to give you some information in respect of my lord’s manner and mode of life after his departure from Cephalonia, which I am very happy to say was that of a good Christian, and one who fears and serves God, in doing all the good that lay in his power, and avoiding all evil. And his charity was always without bounds; for his kind and generous heart could not see nor hear of misery, without a deep sigh, and striving in which way he could serve and soften misery, by his liberal hand, in the most
effectual manner. Were I to mention one hundredth part of the most generous acts of charity, it would fill a volume. And in regard to religion, I have every reason to think the world has been much to blame in judging too rashly on this most serious and important subject; for in the course of my long services of more than twenty years, I have always, on account of the situation which I have held, been near to his lordship’s person, and by these means have it in my power to speak to facts which I have many times witnessed, and conversations which I have had on the subject of religion. My lord has more than once asked me my opinion on his lordship’s life, whether I thought him, as represented in some of the daily papers, as one devoid of religion, &c., &c., words too base to mention. My lord moreover said, “
Fletcher, I know you are what at least they call a Christian; do you think me exactly what they say of me?” I said, “I do not, for I had too just reasons to believe otherwise.” My lord went on on this subject, saying, “I suppose, because I do not go to the church, I cannot any longer be a Christian; but he said moreover, a man must be a great beast, who cannot be a good Christian without always being in the church. I flatter myself I am not inferior in regard to my duty to many of them; for if I can do no good, I do no harm, which I am sorry to say I cannot say of all churchmen.” At another time, I remember it well, being a Friday, I, at the moment not remembering it, said to my lord, “Will you have a fine plate of beccaficas?” My lord, half in anger,
replied, “Is not this Friday? How could you be so extremely lost to your duty, to make such a request to me!” At the same time saying, a man that can so much forget his duty as a Christian, who cannot for one day in seven forbid himself of these luxuries, is no longer worthy to be called a Christian. And I can truly say, for the last eight years and upwards, his lordship always left that day apart for a day of abstinence; and many more and more favourable proofs of a religious mind, than I have mentioned, which hereafter, if I find it requisite to the memory of my lord, I shall undoubtedly explain to you. You, Sir, are aware that my lord was rather a man to be wondered at in regard to some passages in the Holy Scriptures, which his lordship did not only mention with confidence, but even told you in what chapter and what verse you would find such and such things, which I recollect filled you with wonder* at the time, and with satisfaction.

I remember, even so long back as when his lordship was at Venice, several circumstances, which must remove every doubt, even at the moment when my lord was more gay than at any time after; in the year 1817, I have seen my lord repeatedly on meeting or passing any religious ceremonies which the Roman Catholics have in their frequent processions, while at Nivia, near Venice, dis-

* I would suggest that the wonder experienced by Dr. K. was caused by the sad illustration of Lord B.’s forcible and energetic line—

“The tree of knowledge is not that of life.”

mount his horse and fall on his knees, and remain in that posture till the procession had passed; and one of his lordship’s grooms, who was backward in following the example of his lordship, my lord gave a violent reproof to. The man in his defence said, “I am no Catholic, and by this means thought I ought not to follow any of their ways.” My lord answered very sharply upon the subject, saying, “Nor am I a Catholic, but a Christian; which I should not be, were I to make the same objections which you make; for all religions are good when properly attended to, without making it a mask to cover villainy, which I am fully persuaded is too often the case.” With respect to my lord’s late publications, which you mention, I am fully persuaded, when they come to be more fully examined, the passages which have been so much condemned may prove something dark; but I am fully persuaded you are aware how much the public mind has been deceived in the true state of my lamented master. A greater friend to Christianity could not exist, I am fully convinced, in his daily conduct, not only making the Bible his first companion in the morning, but in regard to whatever religion a man might be of, whether Protestant, Catholic, friar, or monk, or any other religion, every priest, of whatever order, if in distress, was always most liberally rewarded, and with larger sums than any one who was not a minister of the gospel, I think, [would give.] I think every thing, combined together, must prove, not only to you, Sir, but to the public at large, that my lord was not only a Christian,
but a good Christian. How many times has my lord said to me, “Never judge a man by his clothes, nor by his going to church, being a good Christian. I suppose you have heard that some people in England say that I am no Christian?” I said, “Yes; I have certainly heard such things by some public prints; but I am fully convinced of their falsehood.” My lord said, “I know I do not go to the church, like many of my accusers; but I have my hopes I am not less a Christian than they; for God examines the inward part of the man, not outward appearances.” Sir, in answer to your inquiries, I too well know your character as a true Christian and a gentleman to refuse giving you any further information respecting what you asked of me. In the first place, I have seen my lord frequently read your books, and moreover I have more than once heard my lord speak in the highest terms of and receive you in the most friendly mariner possible, whenever you could make it convenient to come to Metaxata; and in regard to the Bible, I think I only may refer to you, Sir, how much his lordship must have studied it, by being able to refer to almost any passage in Scripture; and with what accuracy, to mention even the chapter and verse in any part of the Scripture. Now, had my lord not been a Christian, this book would most naturally have been thrown aside, and of course he would have been ignorant of so many fine passages which I have heard him repeat at intervals, when in the midst of his last and fatal illness,—I mean after he began to be delirious. My lord repeated, “I am not afraid to die,”
and,—in as composed a way as a child, without moving head or foot, or even a gasp—went as if he was going into the finest sleep, only opening his eyes, and then shutting them again. I cried out “I fear his lordship is gone!”—when the doctors felt his pulse, and said it was too true. I must say I am extremely miserable to think my lord might have been saved, had the doctors done their duty, by either letting blood in time, or by stating to me that my lord would not allow it, and at the same time to tell me the truth of the real state of my lord’s illness; but instead of that, they deceived me with the false idea that my lord would be better in two or three days, and thereby prevented me from sending to Zante or Cephalonia, which I repeatedly wished to do, but was prevented by them—I mean the doctors—deceiving me: but I dare say you have heard every particular about the whole; if not, I have no objection to give every particular during his illness.

I hope, Sir, your kind intentions may be crowned with success in regard to the publication which you mean to bring before the British public. I must beg your pardon when I make one remark, and which I am sure your good sense will forgive me for, when I say, you know too well the tongues of the wicked, and in particular of the great,—and how glad some would be to bring into ridicule any one that is of your religious and good sentiments of a future state, which every good Christian ought to think his first and greatest duty. For myself, I should be only too happy to be converted to the truth of the gospel. But
at this time I fear it would be doing my lord move harm than good, in publishing to the world that my lord was converted, which to that extent of religion my lord never arrived; but at the same time was a friend to both religion and religious people, of whatever religion they might be; and to none more, or more justly deserving, than
Dr. Kennedy.

I remain, honoured Sir,
With the greatest respect,
Your most obedient and very humble Servant,
(Signed) Wm. Fletcher.
Dr. Kennedy, &c. &c.

[From Count Gamba.]
Zante, May 21, 1824.
Dear Sir,

I cannot but approve your intention about the little work which you propose to publish; because I am persuaded that your only object is to place in a clear light the character of your illustrious compatriot, my ever-to-be-lamented friend, Lord Byron. It is known that many and severe calumnies have been spread against his true character, by inconsiderate and evil-disposed persons. Hence I esteem it incumbent on those who knew his mind, and enjoyed his friendship, to vindicate his memory by declaring the truth. Pane-
gyric is not required, nor the art of eloquence. The truth, and the truth alone, is necessary to dissipate the cloud gathered by insidious, ignorant, invidious, and base passions. His character will rise, clear and sublime as his genius, provided it be purged from this fog.

With greater calm of mind, and more leisure, I shall study to satisfy this debt towards my illustrious friend; meantime, I cannot but rejoice in seeing persons of your merit, and moved by pure motives, intent upon the same object.

You ask me for a minute and full account of all his actions and opinions concerning religion; and also of all his acts of charity and beneficence, known to me. It would be a long and serious task, for any one to pretend to satisfy this demand entirely, especially with respect to the second part; but as far as the limits of a letter will permit, and memory aid me, I shall endeavour to satisfy you.

In my opinion, the sentiments of his lordship on religion were not fixed, that is, he was not held more to one religious and Christian sect than another; but his profound sentiments were religious, and he professed a deep respect for the doctrines of Jesus Christ, as the source of virtue and felicity. With respect to the recondite mysteries of faith, his mind was involved in doubts which, however, he had a desire to dissipate as troublesome, and on this account he never shunned conversations on this subject, as you well know.

I have had occasion to observe him often in those
situations in which the most involuntary and most sincere sentiments of the mind are unfolded,—in serious danger of the stormy sea, or otherwise,—in the contemplation of a fine and tranquil night of summer,—and in the midst of a solitude,—and I have observed his emotions and his thoughts to be deeply tinctured with religion.

The first time that I had a conversation with him on this subject, was at Ravenna, my native country, about four years ago, while we were riding on horseback in an extensive, solitary wood of pines. The scene invited to religious meditation. It was a fine day in spring. “How,” he said, “raising our eyes to heaven, or directing them to the earth, can we doubt of the existence of God?—or how, turning them to what is within us, can we doubt that there is something within us more noble and more durable than the clay of which we are formed? Those who do not hear, or are unwilling to listen to those feelings, must necessarily be of a vile nature.” I wished to answer him with all those reasons which the superficial philosophy of Helvetius, his disciples, and his masters have taught. He answered me with strong arguments and profound eloquence; and I perceived that obstinate contradiction on this subject, forcing him to reason upon it, gave him pain. This discourse made a deep impression on me.

Many times, and in various circumstances, I have heard him confirm the same sentiments; and he always seemed to me to be deeply convinced of their truth. Last
year, in Genoa, when we were preparing for our journey to Greece, he was accustomed to converse with me for two or three hours each evening alone, seated on the terrace of his palace in Albano, in the fine evenings of spring, whence there opened a magnificent view of this superb city and the adjoining sea. Our conversation turned almost always on Greece, for which we were so soon to depart, or on religious subjects. In various ways I heard him confirm the sentiments which I have already mentioned to you. “Why then,” I said to him, “have you gained to yourself the name of impious, and enemy of all religious belief from your writings?” He answered, “They are not understood, and are ill interpreted by the malignant. My object is only to combat hypocrisy, which I abhor in every thing, and particularly in the matter of religion; and which now, unfortunately, appears to me to be prevalent. I seek to unveil the vices, or the vile, interested views which so many cover under a hypocritical mantle, and for this, those to whom you allude wish to render me odious, and make me to be believed an impious person, and a monster of incredulity,” &c.

For the Bible he had always a particular respect. It was his custom to have it always on his study table, particularly during these last months; and you well know how familiar it was to him, since sometimes he knew how to correct your inaccurate citations*.

* It should be remembered, that the Bible which Lord B. used was differently arranged to that to which Dr. K. was accustomed.


Fletcher can have informed you about his very best dispositions in his last moments. He often repeated subjects from the Testament; and when, at his last moments, he had in vain attempted to make known his pleasure with respect to his daughter, and others most dear to him in life, and when, on account of the wanderings of his mind, he could not succeed in making himself understood, Fletcher answered him, “Nothing is more at my heart than to execute your wishes; but, unfortunately, I have not been able to comprehend scarce the half of them.” “Is it possible?” he replied, “Alas! it is too late. How unfortunate? Not my will, but the will of God be done!” There remained to him only a few intervals of reason, and interruptions of delirium,—the effect of a determination of blood to the head.

He often expressed to me the contempt which he felt for those called “esprits forts,” a sect of ignorant egotists, incapable of any generous action; and hypocrites themselves, in their affected contempt of every faith.

He professed a complete toleration, and a particular respect for every sincere conviction. He would have deemed it an unpardonable crime to detach any one persuaded of the truth, from his belief, although it might be tinctured with absurdity, because he believed

Dr. K. has alluded to this circumstance; and hence it was that several, who were merely occasional auditors, imagined that Lord B. corrected the inaccurate citations of Dr. K.

it could lead to no other end than to render him an infidel.

What were his opinions at Cephalonia, you know as well as I, and better. He interested himself in your conversations, as a man who always loved to investigate the truth; and though he was satisfied with many of your opinions, yet, I must confess to you, that it does not appear that he was able to agree with you in all.

He said to me one day at Metaxata, that after a long conversation with you, he asked you at last “What more do you wish of me, in order to reckon me a good Christian?” “To kneel down, and pray to God.” He exclaimed, “This is too much, dear doctor.”

When in Missolunghi, he took care that the Bible and the other sacred books, sent by your pious societies, should be dispersed; and he wished that the advantage which the Greeks would derive from the spread and study of those books should be made public in the gazette.

I am certain, however, that you will take care not to make him appear a devotee, because this would be contrary to truth, in the same degree as that which would make him an enemy to all religion.

If we contemplate his acts of charity and beneficence,—which, indeed are the true substance,—a volume would not be sufficient for me to narrate only those of which I have been a witness.

I knew in some cities of Italy, various decent families who had fallen into poverty—with whom he had no rela-
tion,—to whom he has sent assistance secretly, to the extent of more than two hundred dollars: nor did these people ever learn the name of their benefactor.

Three years ago, at Florence, an honourable mother of an English family became the victim of ruinous persecution, for having seriously defended the honour of one protected by her, against the seductions of some infamous persons; she was reduced to extremity, and had recourse to Lord B., who was in Pisa; this woman was as much unknown to him as were her persecutors. He gave her such support as was sufficient to render vain all the plots of her infamous enemies. He was in Pisa also when a terrible tempest sunk a number of vessels in the harbour of Genoa, and reduced to beggary a number of families in comfortable circumstances. He despatched secretly more than three hundred dollars for these unfortunate people.

One day, riding near the wall of Genoa, along the sea, a captain of a Corsican ship met us;—his ship was wrecked, and himself without bread. Lord B. invited him to his house, and rendered him such effectual assistance, that he was able to return to his country, and engage again in his employment.

Another day, we rode two miles out of Genoa, when we met two people in the most destitute condition; their deportment was noble and proud, and by their features they seemed natives of Germany. Two days afterwards they appeared by accident at his lordship’s house, seeking alms. They were two Germans, fugitives from Greece,
who, persecuted, without shelter, without bread, without shoes, wished to return to their country, Wirtemburgh: they had supported themselves by begging as far as Genoa, and were reduced almost to despair. My lord furnished them with every means to enable them to reach their home. In short, I could relate many hundreds of such actions.

I do not refer you to those which occurred after his arrival in Greece. At Cephalonia, how many families of Moreotes and of Suliotes were maintained by him!

At Missolunghi, he furnished the means of founding an hospital for the benefit of the poor; independently of the large sums which he advanced to the government, and to the city of Missolunghi, for the army and for the navy; and I can assure you, that without his assistance, those most interesting parts of western Greece would have been lost—not from the power of the Turks—but by the Greeks themselves. . . . .

And what did he not desire to do, if he had not been carried away so unseasonably for Greece,—for the world, —and for his friends? . . .

His expedition to Greece, which, after so many other sacrifices, cost him his life, was it not the most generous and beneficent action which could be undertaken by a Christian? Was he a man to cringe to fortune, to power, or to glory?

And how great an influence his coming had on the safety of Greece, in spite of his premature death, I shall some time or other demonstrate to you.


One of his first objects was to inspire both parties with more humane sentiments. You see, when occasion was offered to him, he ransomed women and children, and sent them in liberty to their country. He saved some Turks, not without serious disturbance and personal danger, from the sanguinary hands of some Greek corsairs.

When a Turkish brig struck on the coast of Missolunghi, and it was attempted to make prisoners of the crew, he promised a dollar for each man that was saved, and in proportion for the officers. But they were able to make their escape in the boats of other Turkish vessels.

It may be doubted whether he was a rigid Christian with respect to the opinions of faith, and those little points demanded as their sequence. But we may be allowed to ask those who, with so little humility, boast of their severe observances of the Christian laws, in what manner have their works, even in proportion to their means, merited for them that name, which Lord Byron’s have done, whom they accuse of impiety?

With respect to the little Turkish girl, you know well the reasons which had led him to assist, and his dispositions with regard to her. Besides this, there was found among his writings a detailed note of his intentions. On this account I fulfilled my duty in conducting her to a neutral and free territory, in order the better to know her will. She was disposed to come to you in Cephalonia, (as was known to you,) at least until an answer from my
lord’s executors could be obtained. But there arrived so many entreaties from
Yusuff Pasha, and from her father, who is his secretary, that at last she has decided to return, together with her mother, to her parent. I endeavoured to dissuade her by every argument, but in vain; she always answered, “I have lost my adopted father, Lord Byron; now I do not wish to fly from my true father.” There arrived here a Turkish brig with her father on board, and there was a formal request from Yusuff Pasha to the government, that is, to Colonel Stovin; so that, she fully consenting, we were obliged to give her up, and she departed six days ago.

The following is an extract from a letter of Lord Byron’s to his sister, found among his papers:—“I have been obtaining the release of about nine and twenty Turkish prisoners, men, women, and children; and have sent them, at my own expense, home to their friends; but one, a pretty girl of nine years of age, named Hato, or Hatagée, has expressed a strong wish to remain with me, or under my care, and I have nearly determined to adopt her, if I thought that Lady B. would let her come to England as a companion to Ada, (they are about the same age,) and we could safely provide for her; if not, I can send her to Italy for education. She is very lively and quick, with great black, oriental eyes, and Asiatic features. All her brothers were killed in the revolution. Her mother wishes to return to her husband, who is at Prevesa; but says, that she would rather trust the child to me in the present state of the country. Her
extreme youth and sex have hitherto saved her life; but there is no saying what might occur in the course of the war, (and in such a war!) I shall therefore commit her to the charge of an English lady in the islands for the present. The child herself has the same wish, and seems to have a decided character for her age. You can mention this matter, if you think proper. I wish her to be respectably educated and treated; and if my years and all things be considered, I presume it would be difficult to conceive me to have any other view.”

Thus he made his dispositions, and such were his intentions, until they changed, from causes which I have stated to you.

With respect to your using my name, I confide entirely in your discretion. I have spoken with the Reverend Mr. Wilson, to whom I have communicated the same sentiments which I now write to you. Believe me to be

Your devoted servant,
Dr. Kennedy, &c. &c. &c.
Argostuli, Cephalonia.

October 9, 1823.
Dear Colonel,

The pelisse fits as if it had been made for me, excepting that it is a little too short in the sleeves, which is not of any consequence.

I shall therefore, with many acknowledgments, accept and wear it,—somewhat, I fear, in the mode of the ass in the lion’s skin in the fable; or, rather in the hope which the Indians entertain when they wear the spoils of a redoubted enemy, viz. that his good qualities may be transferred to the new possessor with his habiliments. But these being the garments of a friend, may, I trust, be still more propitious.

I send you some papers, but I doubt that you have later ones; however, they can serve the mess as duplicates: the 29th and 30th are among them; but the 26th and 27th (28th being Sunday) are not yet arrived.

[From Lord Byron.]
October 23, 1823.
Dear Colonel,

I have to pray you to permit the regimental smith to shoe my horses, when he can be spared from duty.

I was very sorry that I missed you the other day, and yet I know not how, for I rode out on the road to Argostoli. The day before yesterday I was in town, and with the intention of intruding on you; but I was detained by business till too late.

The Greek provisional government has sent over one of their agents to conduct me to the residence of the said government. Brown and Trelawny, having been better treated than others, probably give a much more favourable account than we have yet had, from other quarters, of the state of the government and country. For my own part, I shall endeavour (o judge for myself, and expect to set out early in November, according to the desire of the President and his brethren.

We have had another earthquake here (somewhat smarter than the former*,) in the night. It threw down and broke a “lambico,” or filtering-machine for water,

* On the former occasion he said, “I ran out of the room as fast as my legs would carry me, and left Gamba behind; but when I got down, I saw Gamba before me, for he had jumped over the staircase. I then thought it high time to return; and we found Count Delladicima sitting very tranquilly, wondering what had become of us,” He laughed as he mentioned the circumstance.

(I really have forgotten the proper term in our language but it is for a drip-stone to clear water,) and we are bounden to Providence for not having our bones broken instead of crockery.

P.S.—Count Pietro Gamba salutes you, and is doing his best to get well again; with what success, the doctors know best.

[To the Resident of Ithaca.]
Cephalonia, August 26, 1823.
My Dear Sir,

I have to acknowledge your very kind and flattering letter, and am truly glad that you and Mrs. K. have not been so tired of my company as I feared. The few days which I passed with you in your beautiful island, are amongst the whitest in my existence; and as such I shall recollect them,—not without the hope of our meeting again, some time, and somewhere.

I have given directions to Messrs. Kornologni (or Corialegno) to furnish the Moreote refugees with every necessary for their decent subsistence at my expense—
as before proposed by myself; and I have also (as he may, or should have apprized you) directed two hundred and fifty dollars to be placed at your disposal, for the other families now in Ithaca, to be distributed to the most deserving, or the most necessitous, in such proportions as your better experience and knowledge of their circumstances may suggest. The various demands upon me have made me limit the sum lower than I could wish, but it may be a little help to some in the meantime, and we may perhaps do more by-and-bye.

I hope that Mrs. K. has not suffered from her travels, . . . . she is the most intrepid craigs-woman (as the Scotch call it) I have met with. Count P. Gamba, and the rest of the party, beg their best thanks and respects both to her and to you; and uniting in every good wish, I ever am.

Your obliged
And faithful servant,
Captain K.,

P.S. I do not include the Moreote family’s debt in the subscription. I intend to pay that on a separate account; but I forget the amount.

[Dal ConteGamba.]
Missolunghi, 10 Pregmo.del 1824.

Dall Hon. Colonello Stanhope avrete inteso il desiderio lodevole, e la buona speranza che s’ ha di introdurre e propagare la civilizazione fra questi popoli per mezzo delle sacre carte, se il Governo della Grecia libera sarà affidato a quelle mani che i buoni sperano; e se Lord Byron conserverà quell’ influenza che la sua generosità gli ha meritata, io spero di poter cooperare in qualche modo a questa pia opera, e lo farò certo con tutto il piacere. Io sono intimamente persuaso che non vi sia un miglior mezzo per sradicare la vile superstizione, e la barbarie che acciecca questi popoli senza precipitarli in tutti i mali che vengono dal contrario eccesso,—cioè dall’ ateismo,—che la propagazione della luce evangelica. Ma prima che ciò possa produrre qualche sensibile effetto, vi sono molti pericoli da scampare, e molti ostacoli da vincere, il che si può conseguire per altre vie. La direzzione di un giornale affidata a persone di buona volontà e buon’ intelletto parmi la più efficace. Quì si è cominciata una gazetta in Greco, e presto seguierà una compagna in Italiano. Per il Greco principalmente si ha gran penuria di corretti e intelligenti scrittori. Credo che il Professor Vamba sia uno dei migliori fra i Greci, e niuno parrebbe-mi più adattato di lui per un tale impegno importantissimo. Ma finora non
potressimo offerirgli una situazione che equivalga a quella in cui è stabilito: converebbe che il suo caldo patriottismo vi supplisse per la massima parte. Ma forse non è lontano il tempo in cui potremo invitarlo senza comprometterci: e intanto, se non gli dispiacesse di inviare qualche articolo Greco alla gazetta di Missolunghi saria cosa gratissima al Governo di quì, non che a
Lord Byron. Io vi prego, caro Signore Kennedy, di ossequiarlo per parte nostra, e di comunicare le sue intenzione.

Avrete inteso qualcosa delle nostre avventure? Le mie particolarmente furono alquanto romantiche. Sono stato per cinque dì prigioniero di Jussuf Pashà, con non piccolo pericolo al primo momento; giacchè la spaventa imaginazione turca gli fece pensare nostro bastimentaccio per un burlotto,—poi ben trattato—infine libero senza verun danno.

Vi prego di presentare i miei ossequj alia vostra signora, e di credermi

Missolunghi, 24 Febbraio, 1824.
Pregmo. Sig. Dottore,

La mia liberazione fu veramente romanzesca, e la maggior prova che si possa avere si è, che niuno di voi Cefaleni vuol credere all’ istorie del mio Spiro Valsimachi. Ma qualunque sia la vostra incredulità, è però tutto vero, perche tutto mi fu narrato dallo stesso Dey: ma non perciò voglio cedere tutto il merito al Signer Spiro,—ma pace a queste ciancie.

Noi abbiamo aspettato finora gli articoli del Prof. Vamba; ma finora in vano; ma voglio attribuirlo alia mancanza d’ incontri. Fate ogni vostro potere per sollicitarlo. Ora si publicherà una nuova gazetta in Inglese e Italiano, ect., in ogni lingua insomma, in cui ci saranno spediti gli articoli, intitolata il ‘Telegrafo Greco.’ L’ oggetto di questa gazetta sarà di dar notizie esatte dello stato delle cose in Grecia alle nazioni d’ Europa, che vi prendono iuteresse. Spero che voi vorrete contribuire qualche articolo; dovrete diriggervi al Signer Maïr, Dire. della Cronica Greca. Mylord impiega tutta la sua influenza per indurre i greci a sentimenti più cristiani, ed umani, anche verso loro nemici. Ottenne l’ altro ieri due schiavi turchi che ha spediti in libertà alle case loro; e appresso 24 tra donne e fanciulli che si trovavano quì in miseria e schiavitù dal momento che scoppiò la rivoluzione. Una piccola fanciulla di 8
anni, incirca, che non desiderava di tornare fra i Turclii, è riraasta quì,—è di belle forme nella persona, e mostra ottime inclinazione d’ animo. Sarìa veramente un tradimento nella sua età, in cui i pregiudizj nazionali, e le superstitioni non possono aver preso radice, di lasciarla in preda ai brutali costumi dei Musulmani. E l’ intenzione di Mylord di spedirla in Italia, o in InghiHerra a sua sorella perchè sia educata, e gli si prepari un miglior sorte nella vita che avrebbe aspettare nei barbari e insensibili suoi paesi. Vorria però che restasse per qualche mese nelle isole per imperare un po’ d’ Italiano, e perchè venisse la buona stagione prima di spedirla innanzi. Se voi rimanete nelle isole, vorrebbe dare a voi, e alia vostra Signora questo disturbo per un pajo di mesi,—ben inteso che ogni spesa occorrente pel suo mantenimento, e la sua educazione saria a conto di Mylord; desidero una pronta risposta. Raccomandatemi alia memoria dei comuni amici, e credetemi sempre

Missolunghi, li 3 Marzo, 1824.
Amico Carissimo,

Pensaste ottimamente a scrivermi in inglese, che vi prego continuare nella vostra per me piacevolissima corrispondenza, la quale oltre di essermi grata per una parte, mi serve anche di potente stimolo nel fare più rapidi progressi in tal lingua tanto utile per ogni riguardo.

Io poi vi scriverò in Italiano, perche mi è più spedito. I saggi consigli che me esponeste nella vostra lettera non possouo essere dettati da maggior prudenza e cognizione intorno le malattie a cui può soggiacere il nostro nobile Lord Byron. Essi presso a poco collimano con quelli che gli ho suggerito, e che mette in pratica. Non trovo però momentaneamente una tanto imperiosa necessità che debba abbandonare la Grecia; primo perchè l’ aria di costà e forsè migliore di quella delle isole; secondariamente, perchè pare che Mylord si vadi accostutnando ai ripetuti motivi di disturb! cagionatigli dai Greci, e dalle circostanze, onde l’ effetto ne sarà sempre minore, e le convulsioni epilettiche come nel primo attacco non essendo più comparse, è sperabile con fondamento che non ritomeranno più mediante l’ allontamento delle cause fisiche, e la diminuzione delle morali.

Circa l’ allontanamento delle prime, Mylord si dimostra docilissimo; ma il di lui temperamento, ed il di lui animo che non quieta nemmeno pendente il sonno, gli vietano di sbandire le cause morali, a diminuire le quali
non vi vorrebbe altro che fargli fare molto moto, od esercizio a cavallo, od in mare, il che presentemente non è permesso per le strade, ed il tempo cattivo.

Mylord per il primo, e noi tutti della di lui casa, siamo pienamente convertiti al Metodismo, e voi potete contare in me uno de’ vostri più caldi proseliti che non brama che occasion! per dimostrarvelo. Non vi parlo della malattia di Mylord (che ora sta bene) per brevità del tempo, perchè ne scrissi ora la storia all’ amico Dottore Scott, che potrete vedere.

Qui si travaglia fortemente per far progredire la causa Greca, e facciamo anche ogni sforzo per preparare bene gli animi affinchèi principj coi quali ci avete convertiti, possano estendersi, e prosperare rapidamente.

Procurate di mantenervi in ottima salute; conservatemi il voslro attaccamento, favorite di presentare i mie più rispettosi complimenti alia stimabilissima vostra Signora Consorte, ed abbiatemi qual

[Dal Dottore Bruno.]
Zantè, li 18 Maggio, 1824.
Dottore Stimatissimo,

Mi congratulo assai con voi del progetto di publicare le conversazioni religiose che aveste coll’ onorevole Lord Byron di buona memoria; ma spiacemi non potervi dare altre informazioni sopra le di lui intenzioni circa al Metodismo, fuorchè non vi era certamente attaccato, sebbene manifestasse per quello della stima, e specialmente alia vostra persona, che considerava una delle più oneste e brava che si possano trovare.

Vi dirò piutosto che non passava quasi mai giorno che non fosse marcato da qualche atto di beneficenza, e che il povero, o l’ infelice non si presentavano mai alia porta di Mylord senza essere certi che ricevevano il balsamo della consolazione; che predominava fra le altre belle di lui qualità, quella di un cuore compassionevole e sensibile fuor di misura per il misero e disgraziato, e che la suaborsa era sempre aperta in loro favore. E inutile che vi parli del riavio alia loro patria di quei Turchi e Turche in N°. di 25, ciò che fu tutta quanta opera sua, nè; vi accennerò le spese fatte, e le sue intenzioni per l’ educazione di quella piccola Turca con sua madre, che voi dovevate ricevere, ma che sgraziatamente vollero ritornare in Prevasa dove si trova il padre della bambina. Quando qualche miserabile era gravemente infermo o per caduta, o fratture, od altri mali, Mylord senza esserne
richiesto, subito mi mandava da quegli infelici per guarirli, somministrando loro medicine, ed ogni necessario soccorso. Fù uno dei primi in Missolunghi che diede qualche soccorso per stabilire un’ ospedale. Mylord amava poi anche sommamente la giustizia, e non poteva tollerare la bugia nemmeno per scherzo; era dotato d’ una sincerità senza pari, e tollerante al massimo grado circa gli affari di religione. Le di lui beneficenze fatte in Cefalonia a sufficienza le conoscete; quelle moltissime fatte in Italia, ed in altre parti, voi le conoscerete dal
Mr. Fletcher, e dal Conte Gamba. Circa la lettura della sacra Bibbia, mi pare che se ne occupasse, poichè la teneva sul di lui tavolino da studio con altri suoi libri: altro non saprei dirvi che confermare le verità che potrete scrivere sul conto dell— eccelso personaggio, onde accrescere sempre più la di lui fama, e gloria.

Con piacere poi vi informo che voi foste la fortunata cagione che io lessi e considerai il nuovo testamento da capo a fondo, ed acquistai una gran disposizione alia conversione al Metodismo. Tuttavia non sono ancora intieramente metodista riguardo alia credenza, ma lo sono perfettamente, e dei più entusiasti per il fine politico del publico bene. Poichè vedo nel Metodismo tutto il vantaggio delle altre religioni, e più ancora quel che è della massima importanza, che mancano le chiese, ed il loro fasto, i frati, i preti, le cerimonie religiose, ed altre cose simili, che costano ai popoli somme immense, le quale impiegate in altre opere migliori, frutterebbero il più grande vantaggio alia umanità; e poi mancando quel
numeroso ceto di frati, o preti, od altri simili oziosi che formano uno stato nello state, e che proteggono con ogni loro mezzo i tiranni, questi perderebbero moltissimo delta loro forza essendo i popoli metodisti, e vice versa i popoli acquisterrebbero immensamente verso la libertà credendo nel puro Evangelo.

Per questo motivo specialmente io feci altri metodisti, e sono impegnatissimo nell’ accrescerne il numero; e quelli che non posso persuadere, o convincere abbastanzu colla ragione, e colla prove della sacra scrittura, e del nuovo testamento, li conduco al Metodismo per questa via politica, così bella, e così buona: ma quel che vi ha di curioso è questo, che mentre voglio convincere gli altri, e ridurli,—come voi dite “sulla buona strada,”—convince pure me medesimo, e mi riscaldo sempre più per questa cosi nobile, e vantaggiosa riforma.

Non vi parlo della morte del benemerito Lord Byron per non irritare di più una piega di già abbastanza per se dolorosa: mi basta il dirvi che due principalmente furono le cngioni della di lui morte. Un giovane dottore Inglese, che per fare la corte e piacere a Mylord, che ripugnava alle cavate di sangue, si oppose sempre alle mie fervide instanze perchè si cavasse sangue, e metteva in ridicolo le minaccie ed il pronostico che facevo a Mylord della certa sua morte se non si lasciava cavare sangue in abbondanza. L’ altra è un’ individuo in carica eminente, ma volgarissimo di condizione, di maniere, e di costumi, il quale due o tre volte al giorno visitava Mylord, sempre ripetendogli, non ascoltate i medici, mangiate, bevete, non lasciatevi toccare il sangue
e fate ciò che vi dico io che son migliore di tutti i dottori. Costui ora è fuggito da Missolunghi. Nel mio grave dolore io avrò sempre la dolce consolazione che ogni individuo della famiglia di Mylord, e tutti quelli che approssimavano S. E., fanno ampia testimonianza, e mi rendono giustizia, come pure il dottore Inglese, e altri due medici consulenti, i quali tutti affermano che se Mylord aderiva alia sola mia cura, sarebbe ancora certamente nella vita. Il triste fine della raalattia di Mylord, ed i pin manifesti segni di infiammazione che si trovarono nel cervello, comprovarono pienamente i miei pronostici, mentre dall’ altra parte gli altri tre dottori della cura, rimasero grandemente meravigliati del più grosso sbaglio che abbiano potuto mai prendere nella diagnosi, nella cura, e nel pronostico della malattia che facevano sempre buono fine quasi agli ultimi istanti, talmente io gridava che Mylord era i nprofondo sopore vicino della morte, ed essi così ciechi dicevano che era un sonno profondo, ed utile della crisi salutare, che andavano pronosticando.

Aggradite i miei compliment!, e favorite di presentarli alla vostra molto rispettabile consorte, al Dottore Miour, e al Conte Delladecima, ai quali vi prego di far leggere queste poche cose sulla malattia di Mylord. Procurate di mantenervi in buona salute, conservatemi la vostra amicizia e tenete mi sempre qual

Vostro affezionatissimo e sincere Amico,
(Sottoscritto)  Francesco Bruno.
A molto lllustre Sig.
Il Sig. Dottor Kennedy.
Zantè, 21 Maggio, 1824.
Pregmo. Signor Dottore,

Io non potrei clie approvare la vostra intenzione intorno all’ opuscolo che vi siete proposto di publicare—perchè son persuaso che l’ unico vostro oggetto sia di mettere in chiara luce il carattere dell’ illustre vostro compatriotta—dell’ in-eterno-da-me-lamentabile-amico, Lord Byron. È conosciuto che molte, e gravi, calunnie sono sparse contro al suo raro carattere dagl’ inconsiderati, e dai maligni, per cui io stimo debito di quelli che conobbero l’animo suo, e che goderono la sua amicizia, a vendicare la sua memoria, producendo il vero. Non si richiede panegirico, ne arte di eloquenza,—la verità—sola la verità,—si vuole a dissipare tutta la nebbia radunata dalle insidiose, ignoranti, invidiose, e basse passioni. Il suo carattere splenderà chiaro, e sublime, come il suo genio, purchè sia purgato da qnella nebbia.

Con maggiore calma di spirito, e miglior agio, io mi studierò di sodisfare a questo debito verso l’ illustre mio amico; intanto io non posso che rallegrarmi in vedere persone del vostro merito, e mosse da puri motivi, intese a quel scopo.

Mi chiedete un racconto minuto, e pieno, di tutte le azioni, e opinioni sue, che riguardano la religione,—non che di tutti i suoi atti di carita, e di beneficenza, a me note. Sarebbe un lungo, e grave, impegno, se preten-
dessi di sodisfarvi intieramente, in particolare per quanto spetta alia seconda parte. Ma come la strettezza di una lettera comporta, o la memoria mi ajuta, m’ ingegnerò di sodisfarvi.

A mio avviso le opinioni di Mylord in fatto di religione non erano fisse; cioè, non teneva piutosto a una setta religiosa e Cristiana, che a un’ altra: ma i suoi profondi sentimenti erano religiosi, e professava un’ alto rispetto per le dottrine di Gesù Cristo, come sorgente di virtù, e di felicità. Per rispetto ai reconditi misteri della fede, la sua mente era involta in dubbj,—i quali però aveva desiderio di dissipare, quasi molesti, e per ciò non scampava mai le conversazioni su questo proposito, come voi ben sapete.

Io ho avuto occasione di osservarlo soventi volte in quelle situazioni in cui i sentimenti dell’ uomo si svelano più involuntarj, e più sinceri—per esempio—in un grave pericolo di mar, burrasca, od altri, o nella contemplazione di una bella tranquilla notte d’ estate, in mezzo a una solitudine, ed ho osservato le sue emozioni, e i suoi pensieri profondamente tinti di religioso.

La prima volta che io ebbi conversazione con mi su questo soggetto fu a Ravenna, mia patria, saran quattro anni—mentre cavalcavamo insieme, in un superbo solitario bosco di pini. La scena invitava alle meditazioni religiose. Era un chiarogiornodi primavera. “Come,” mi disse, “alzando gli occhj al cielo, o abassandoli alia terra, si puo dubitare dell’ esistenza di Dio? e come rivolgendoli al nostro intero possiam dubitare che non vi
sia qualche cosa dentro di noi più nobile, e più durevole che la creta di cui siamo formati? Quelli che non odono, o non vogliono ascoltare questi sentimenti, bisogna bene che siano di una vile natura.”

Io volli rispondere con tutte quelle ragioni che la superficiale filosofia d’ Elvezio, e de’ suoi, e discèpoli, e maestri, insegna. Egli mi rispose con stretti ragionamenti e profonda eloquenza, e m’ accorsi che l’ ostinata contradizione su quel soggetto, costringendolo a ragionarvi sopra, gli dava pena. Quel discorso fece sopra di me una forte impressione.

Molte volte, e in varie circostanze, io l’ ho udito con* fermare li stessi sentiment!,—e me n’ è sembrato sempre profondamente convinto. Per l’ appunto lᰱ anno scorso in Genoa, quando ci preparavamo a venire in Grecia, era in costume di conversare due o tre ore ogni sera con me solo, assiso sopra la terazza del suo palazzo in Albano, nelle belle sere di primavera; d’ onde si scopre una magnifica vista della superba città, e del mare contiguo: la nostra conversazione cadeva quasi sempre sulla Grecia, alia cui spedizione allora ci preparavamo, o sui soggetti religiosi. In varii modi lo sentii sempre confermare li sentimenti che io vi spiegai di sopra. “Perchè dunque,” io gli diceva, “vi guadagnate il nome di empio, e nemico di ogni credenza religiosa coi vostri scritti?” Mi rispose, “O non sono intesi, o son malinterpretati dai maligni: mio oggetto non è che di combattere l’ ipocrisia, che io aborro in ogni cosa, e principalmente in fatto di religione; e che ora per disaventura parmi prevalere.
Io cerco di svelare i vizi, o gl’ interessi vili, che tanti si coprono sotto ipocrito manto, e per ciò quelli a cui duole vogliono rendermi odioso, e farmi credere un’ empio, un mostro d’ incrednlità, etc.”

Per la Bibbia egli ebbe sempre un particolare rispetto: Fù in uso di tenerla sempre sulla sua tavola di studio, particolarmenle in questi ultimi mesi; e voi ben sapete quanto a lui fosse famigliare, poichè qualchevolta ha saputo correggere qualche vostra citazione inesatta.

Fletcher può avervi informato intorno alle ottime disposizioni di suoi ultimi momenti; ripetè spesso dei soggeiti del testamento; e quando agli estremi ebbi tentato invano di manifestare alcune sue volontà per sua figlia, e per gli oggetti a lui più cari nella vita, e che per la gravezza di mente non gli era riuscito di farsi comprendere; Fletcher gli rispose, “Nulla mi è più a cuoreche di eseguire le vostre volonta, ma per disgrazia non ho potuto comprendere che appena lameta.” “È possibile?” rispose. “Oimè! è troppo tardi, qual sventura! .. Non la mia volontà, ma quella di Dio sia fatta.” Non gli rimasero che pochi intervalli di ragione, e interotti da delirio, effetto del sangiie alia testa.

Molte volte espresse a me il disprezzo che egli aveva per i cosl detti àesprits forts’outrance, setta di ignoranti egoisti, incapaee di ogni nzione generosa, e ipocriti essi stessi nel loro affettato disprezzo di ogni fede.

Professò un’ intiera toleranza e un rispetto particolare per ogni sinccra convinzione: avria stimato un’ imperdonabile delitto il tentative di disparere qualunque,
persuaso della verità della sua credenza, comecchè potesse esser tacciata di assurdità, perchè stimava che noa potesse condur ad altro che a renderlo infedele.

Quanti fossero le sue opinioni a Cefalonia voi ne sapete quanto me, e più. S’ interessò nelle vostre conversazioni come uomo che sempre amava d’ investigare il vero: e quantunque aggradisse in molte delle vostre opinioni, bisogna che vi confessi che non mi pare abbia potuto aggradire in tutte.

Mi disse un giorno a Metaxata, che dopo una lunga conversazione con voi, vi chiese allor, “Che cosa volete di più da me, per tenermi un buon Cristiano?” “Inginocchiatevi e pregare a Dio.” “Questo è troppo, caro dottore.” . . .

Quando in Missolunghi egli prese cura perchè le bibbie, e gli altri sacri libri mandati dalle vostre pie Società, fossero sparsi; e voile che fosse fatto publico nelle gazette il vantaggio che ne saria derivato ai Greci dallo spargimento, e dallo studio di quei libri.

Son certo però che prendrete cura di non farlo comparire un devoto; perchè ciò sarebbe contro la verità, ugualmente, che il farlo apparire un nemico di ogni religione.

Se veniamo agli atti di carita e di beneficenza, che poi sono la vera sostanza, non mi basterebbe un volume per narrarvi minutamente quelli soli dei quali io son stato testimonio.

Io so in alcune città di Italia di decente famiglie cadute in bassa fortuna, senza aver nessun relazione con
lui; che egli gli ha inviato dei soccorsi secreti, e considerabile, fino a più che 200 talleri, senza anche che loro fosse conosciuto il nome del benefattore.

Tre anni indietro, a Firerize, un’ onorata madre di famiglia Inglese cadde in una rovinosa persecuzione per aver seriamente difeso l’ onore di una sua protetta contro le seduzioni di alcuni .... ed era ridotta agli estremi. Ebbe ricorso a Mylord, che si trovava in Pisa, e tanto quella donna infelice quanto i suoi vili persecutori erano sconosciuti a lui. Egli la sovvenne di tali soccorsi, che potè deludere tutte le insidie de’ suoi infami nemici. Era anche in Pisa quando una terribile procella sommerse una quantità di bastimenti nel porto di Genoa, e ridusse alia mendicita un gran numero di famiglie. Egli spedl secretamente più che 300 talleri per soccorso di quegli infelici.

Un giorno cavalcando presso alle mura di Genoa, lungo il mare, ci venne incontro un capitano di nave Corso, la cui nave era naufragata, e si trovava senza pane. Egli l’ invitò alla sua abitazione, e lo sovvenne in modo da potere tornare alla sua patria e procacciarsi nuovo impegno.

Un’ altro dì cavalcavamo fuori di Geneva due miglia, quando incontrammo due miseri nel più desolato stato. Il loro portamento era nobile, e fiero, e la loro fisonomia li indicava nativi di Germania: due giorni appresso comparvero per caso chiedendo limosina a Mylord, alla sua abitazione. Erano fuggiaschi dalla Grecia,—due Alemanni—che perseguitati, senza tetto, senza pane, senza
scarpe, volevano tornare alia loro patria, in Virtembergh; e così avevano mendicato la loro vita da Ancona, fino a Geneva; e si trovavano quasi in sul disperato. Mylord li fornì di ogni mezzo per potersi recare fino alia patria loro. Infine potrei numerarvi molte ceritinajo di eimili azioni.

Non vi parlo di quelle dopo il suo arrive in Grecia. A Cefalonia quante famiglie di Moreotti, e di Suliotti non furono mantenute da lui?

A Missolunghi egli ha forniti i mezzi per fondare un’ ospedale a benefizio dei poveri. Senza parlarvi delle larghe somme che ha somministrato al governo, e alia città di Missolunghi, per l’ armata (cioè l’ esercito), per la marina, etc, ed io posso accertarvi sicuramente che senza il suo soccorso quell’ interessantissima parte della Grecia occidentale era perduta, non dai Turchi, ma dai Greci stessi*.

E ciò che aveva in animo di fare, se non era involato si immaturamente alla Grecia, al mondo, ai suoi amici. . . . .

E la sua spedizione in Grecia, che, dopo tanti altri sacrifizj, gli è costata la vita, non era la più generosa, e benefica, e un’ azione di Cristiano, che si possa intraprendere? Era egli uomo da mendicare fortuna, potere, e gloria?

E qual influenza la sua venuta abbia avuto per la salute della Grecia, malgrado la sua immatura perdita io potrò mostrarvelo qualche volte!

* Missolunghi had not fallen at the writing of the above.


Uno di suoi primi oggetti era d’ indurre l’ una e l’altra parte a sentimenti più umani. Vedete quando gli si è offerta occasione ha riscattato donne e fanciulli e spediti in libertà alia patria loro. Alcuni Turchi salvò, non senza gran disturbo e pericolo personale, dalle mani sanguinarie di corsari Greci.

Quando un Brik Turco ruppe alla costa di Missolunghi, e che si tentava di fare l’ equipaggio prigioniero, egli promise un tallero per ogni uomo che fosse salvato,—e in proporzione per gli official!. Ma poterono salvarsi in tempo sulle lancie degli altri bastimenti Ottomani.

Si può dubitare che non fosse un rigido Cristiano in quanto alle opinion! di fede, e alle pratiche richieste per esserne seguenza. Converria chiedere a quelli che sì poco umilmente si vantano di loro severe osservanze delle leggi Cristiane, come coll’ opere,—anche in proporzione dei loro mezzi,—seppero mai accostarsi a meritare quel nome in fatti, come Lord Byron, che accusano di empio?

Intorno a quella piccola Turca, voi conoscete bene le ragioni che l’ avevano consigliato, e le sue disposizioni; oltre a ciò si era trovato fra i suoi scritti una dettagliata nota delle sue intenzioni a questo riguardo. Perciò io stimai mio debito di condurla in terra neutra, e libera, per meglio conoscere la sua volontà. Era disposta di venire presso di voi a Cefalonia, come vi feci sapere, finchè almeno si potesse ottenere una risposta dagli esecutori di mylord: ma giunsero quì tante istanze di Jussuf Pachà, e dal suo padre stesso, che ve è un segre-
tario, che infine fermamente si [è decisa] di tornare, insieme con sua madre, al sno genitore. Io ho tentato di dissuaderla con ogni argomento, ma in vano. Ella rispose sempre—“Ho perduto il mio padre adottivo Lord Byron: ora non voglio fuggire dal mio vero padre.” Venne qui un Brik Turco apposta, col suo padre a bordo—e v’ era richiesta formale di Jussuf Pachà, al governatore Sig.
Colonel Stoven, così consentendo essa pienamente fossimo obligato di darle, e son partite saran già sei dì.

Eccovi un’ estratto di una lattera di Mylord a sua sorella trovato fra le sue carte:—“ I have been obtaining the release of about twenty-nine captives. . . .” nella lettera tradotta.

Così egli dispose, e tali erano le loro intenzione finchè cangiarono per le ragioni che vi scrissi.

In quanto al servirvi del mio nome, io lo confido alia vostra discrezione. Ho parlato col Revndo. Signer Wilson, a cui ho comunicato li stessi sentiment! che ora vi scrivo.

Missolunghi, 21 Feb., (4 Mar.) 1824.
Monsieur tres estime,

J’ai reçu votre lettre par laquelle je suis confirmé dans les jugements que me fait sur vous M. le Col. de Stanhope.

La cassette avec les traites religieux et moraux se trouvent encore en main du Lord Byron, qui me la consignera aujourd’hui.

On sentit ici peut-être plus que dans aucune autre partie de la Grece la necessite d’instruire les hommes, de leur faire connoître la religion et la morale, comme les seules bases sur lesquelles on peut fonder une liberté positive. La confiance des habitants de la Korelj m’a chargé d’organiser des inss. . . . aprés que je leur avois parlé des suites importantes que pourront avoir la lecture de la Bible et les traités moraux, de se former une société pour la Bible et pour l’établissement d’une école. Plusieurs braves patriotes et chrétiens se sont réunis avec moi en comité, desirant que je tâche de repandre, premiérement la Bible et secondement d’y former une école.

Les Bibles et les traités que j’ai reçus ont été distributés à des prêtres instruits et à des établissements qu’on appelle écoles; des résultats très glorieux sont sortis, comme un prêtre (de la Kravarj) m’écrit ainsi.

“Je reçus vos Bibles, Dimanche derniére, devant l’église,
sous une platane, j’ai commencé à en lire. J’étois entouré d’hommes, de femmes et d’enfants: ‘Quel livre lisez-vous?’ demandoient ces personnes; je leur en ex pliquois, et prenois pour la premiére lecture publique le sermon du Christ de la montagne. Ces gens étoient étonnés d’entendre des paroles qu’ils n’ont jamais entendues, et j’étois obligé de leur promettre de lire avec eux chaque Dimanche l’évangile.”

Pour l’école j’ai fixé la methode de Lancastre comme celle qui en portera évidemment plus vîte des fruits qu’aucune autre. J’espère de recevoir en peu de temps deux maitres qui seront capables d’instruire les enfants. Les fonds pour cet ètablissement est à peu près par souscriptions, et des autres moyens assurés, pour la maison, pour un jardin et le payement des maîtres, &c. Ce foible récit vous a fait voir que mon intention est de donner des bases religieuses et morales comme Rédacteur du Chronique Grec, et un des Editeurs du Télégraphe Grec qui sortira en peu de jours. Je suis parfaitement d’accord que seulement la religion et la morale peuvent fonder et former la liberté que veulent les Grecs: sans ces lumiéres les Grecs ne seroient jamais dignes de posséder un bien si éminent, qui, sans religion et sans morale, serait comme un glaive dans la main d’un enfant.

Des livres pour l’éducation et pour la morale, même dans des langues differêntes, seroient três souhaitables; je vous sollicite de me procurer de ces matêriaux autant que possible.


J’aurais l’honneur de vous écrire davantage dans ma premiéere lettre—excusez-moi pour aujourd’hui. Acceptez mes considérations les plus distinguées.

A Monsieur,
  Monsieur Kennedy, M.D.
à Cefalonie.


The cause of education in Greece has been already so well advocated, and it is so earnestly pressed upon the attention of the English public, that any attempt which I might make to second this desirable object might, perhaps, be deemed impertinent. As we had, however, much and intimate connexion with this interesting people, I may be pardoned for introducing the following letter, particularly as it has already appeared, and is really descriptive of the state of the Ionian Islands, and of the general feeling there.

“When we were about to leave Cephalonia, many of the mothers of the children who attended the school visited me, and one with much emotion said, ‘We have deep and great cause to bless you, Kyria; but you are going, and the school, with the immense benefits to be derived from it, will cease, and we shall be left to the darkness of ignorance.’ I encouraged her by pointing out the flourishing state of the school; she replied, ‘Alas! lady, we acknowledge and appreciate the blessing, but we require to be led, guided, and reproved, like children; and the instant you are gone, you will find the Greek gentlemen relax in their attention; and the ladies will cease to exert themselves, when the stimulus you have given them is taken away.’ Many of the poor women wished to make me presents, as expressive of their gra-
titude, but I declined receiving any; and when they appeared hurt by my refusal, I explained my motives, by informing them that the mothers of those who could not afford it, would strive to make me presents also, and that the children themselves would think a present a necessary preliminary to my favour. It was with difficulty I could make them consent to the propriety of my resolution. Many gentlemen of high respectability entreated me to exert myself to procure an English mistress, and they would then gladly double their subscriptions; I considered the proposition as chimerical in the highest degree, nor could I then have anticipated, that an Englishwoman would renounce her country, separate herself from her kindred and friends, for the purpose of devoting herself to the service of strangers and foreigners. I hope, fervently hope, that the Cephaloniotes will honourably redeem the pledge they gave us.

“The Greeks manifest an equal degree of anxiety for the education of their ecclesiastics, who, till this period, have been the most ignorant, mean, and superstitious class of men, not ranking above the peasants whom they taught. The following is an extract of a letter we received from a friend in Cephalonia, Professor B ——. ‘Since my first arrival at this island, I informed all my friends and acquaintance of the willingness and pleasure with which I would receive any of the poor ecclesiastics, who wished to learn the ancient Greek. To this moment, no one had evinced the least desire to avail himself of the offered opportunity. The progress which many of
my scholars have made has at length stimulated their lethargy, and caused many to attend to instruction as a real good, to the possession of which they ought to give a portion of their vainly spent lives; but since the government has begun to take notice of the diligence of some of the ecclesiastics, necessity, aspiring ambition, the hope of acquiring happiness, all are become the centre of good. I have already in the number of learners, one Deacon and three Anagnostes (readers)—I sincerely hope that others will come. Every good is commenced by human instruments; the grace of God, however, is the first great cause of all, exciting and working energetically in times, and by means unknown, and frequently unexpected to our grovelling and weak minds.‘“The Professor is now removed to Corfu.

“In Ithaca I had a much more intimate intercourse with the ladies than in Cephalonia, and they were anxious not only for the education of their own children, but for the female children of the whole of Greece. We have had frequent, and interesting conversations on this subject. One evening, a few weeks before we left the island, we had assembled a number of our friends at our house; Dr. Ciciliani entered rather late, and addressing the ladies, said, ‘I have pleasing news for you, and a cause for congratulation to the gentlemen.’ They all eagerly inquired what it was, for the Greek fleet had been expected with deep and intense interest, and the Greeks were daily expecting to hear of the arrival of Lord Cochrane. ‘I have read,’ he replied, ‘in a gazette from Hydra, that
the ladies in Scotland, lamenting the want of education among our women, have formed a society for the purpose of instituting schools for the Greeks.’ The ladies arose, and crowded around me, and with glistening eyes, and in an earnest manner said, ‘Kyria—you are going to England! do not,—oh! do not forget us, but excite the English to pity us. Give our deepest, our most heartfelt thanks to the Scotch ladies; tell all the English to sympathize with us—to aid us—but not to despise us.’ The gentlemen had pressed forward and stood with looks of indescribable expression. I could have wept with emotion.
Dr. K. and I told them, that we had neither influence, nor interest, which of itself could benefit them, but we gave a promise, that we would do what we could, and that I would repeat their sentiments, and mention their gratitude to the ladies of Scotland.

“In June last, I received the following letter from a lady, a refugee from Patras, who is mistress to the school in Ithaca:—

“‘Our school, dear lady, flourishes, and its fruits are grateful, nor has my diligence been in vain, for it has interested the feelings and the souls of the gentlemen of Ithaca. The greater part of the girls who first entered the school have left, but others have entered, and the blossoming of fruit in them, praised be God, appears even more encouraging, and more abundant; therefore, I pursue with ardour the good advice which you have given me. I offer you my most humble salutations. I
pray the Lord God that He may bestow upon you and your husband every blessing.—Ithaca.’

“Our school was conducted on the Lancasterian system; and when the girls were at work, the first monitor read a sentence from Bambas’s grammar, and called on one of the young people to explain what she had read; this was rather an amusement than a task, and one would strive to emulate another, or smile at the mistakes made. Dr. Morato took a deep interest in the school, and often proposed questions which excited the ingenuity and improved the intellectual powers of the girls.

“Next to Corfu, Zantè is the island of greatest importance; but though the commerce is active, and the inhabitants are rich, the women are here more secluded than in any of the other islands. The town is crowded to excess, yet it does not afford the least means of instruction to females, and a doubt has been expressed to me, whether the girls would be allowed to attend the school, if one was established. But as the Zantiotes are very jealous of their own importance and dignity, they will blush when they find schools established in the other islands, while the women of Zanté are permitted to remain in the most profound ignorance. The establishment of the college of Corfu will, undoubtedly, produce a change in the desires and sentiments even of the Zantiotes*.

* From a letter which I received in January, I find that a school is commenced in Zantè, which has every prospect of success.—1830.


“Santa Maura is in the same predicament. Since I left this island, the town, Amaxithi, hns been destroyed by an earthquake, and it may perhaps be some time ere the inhabitants recover themselves, though the government has been benevolently kind to them. Dr. Polito is a native of this place, and would, I should imagine, gladly cooperate with any one in such a useful institution; he is superintendent of the Lancasterian schools established throughout the Ionian islands. With the exception of one or two ladies who are in the habit of appearing in the gay circles of Corfu, and by association have acquired a refined polish, which is not often found among uneducated women, the ladies of Santa Maura are very deficient in mental accomplishments, even in the very simplest kind of knowledge. I must however say, that the Greek women almost universally possess a softness and gentleness of manners which is particularly pleasing and attractive. The consciousness of their own deficiencies produces a timidity and hesitation, which is calculated not only to prepossess the stranger, but to excite admiration; this however soon yields to a less pleasing emotion after acquaintance. In the lower classes this ignorance is the cause of a rude, good-natured, but troublesome familiarity of manners, and would disgust those who are not prepared to view them through a proper medium.

“Paxo is a small, and considered an insignificant island, but my recollections of it are peculiarly grateful. The
inhabitants possess the most primitive simplicity, a great suavity and benevolence of manner. There is no school for females here. The people of Paxo are very industrious, and always clean and particularly neat in their dress. Several refugees from Parga, and from Suli, reside here. The bishop of Parga, a very excellent old man, lives in this island. He was much pleased with the proposition of a female school, and promised to give all his influence towards its establishment; but he, as well as the Regent, was so engaged in the election which was about to take place for the members of the Senate, that We agreed to postpone it, and before the election had taken place, we left the island.”

Professor Bambas, in a letter which I received November, 1829, expresses a great desire that schools should be instituted at Athens, or in the Ægean; and he would wish to impress upon the minds of the benevolent the necessity of good books, which might form a public library. The Honourable Leicester Stanhope, Dr. Meyer, all who have written on this subject, are unanimous in the expression of the same feeling.

Professor B. says, “There appear to be two general centres for instruction,—one in Septinsular, the other in Greece Proper, and in order that no abuse of trust may occur, the Greek Society (in England) should select one of their members as a deputy. Let him be a prudent and a good man, who may consider of the means necessary to be employed, and who may be a witness of the
progress made . . . . . . such a system of aid, if I am not greatly deceived, would tend to the eternal glory of Christianity.”

I have felt considerable hesitation in thus bringing forward to public notice the hopes and the desires of the Greeks: yet, were I silent, I should be unjust.

Lord Byron expressed himself very warmly on this subject; and all the intelligent who have visited Greece agree with him in thinking that (though alloyed in a most melancholy manner) there are excellent materials to work upon. In confirmation of this, I need only refer to the interesting letters written by Count Gamba, the Honourable Leicester Stanhope, Dr. Bruno, and by Dr. Meyer. The same imagination, the same vivacity, invention, and ingenuity, mark the modern Greeks, as characterized the ancient inhabitants of the country; and that they are sensibly alive to kindness, we are evidences. They have too often had, and have, occasion to mistrust the sincerity of their associates; and a sentiment of apprehension and of diplomatic policy is the result. The peace and quiet that mutual good faith would inspire is little known; hence the petty rivalries, the envyings, the jealousies, and fears, that more or less animate the whole people,—whether in Continental, or in Septinsular Greece. Education, placed on a religious basis, would remove these, and numberless other evils—which many of the enlightened perceive and deplore. The Greeks are not wedded to their superstitions, though some may be shackled and woefully misled by them; it is to
be lamented, perhaps, that those among them who are educated, ridicule the absurdity of the ceremonies and dogmas of the church; since they too often plunge into a contrary extreme, and rashly conclude the whole to be a farce. A priest once (not an illuminati) complained, “Indeed, Kyria, the people are atheoï, for, while they offer petitions to the Parthenon (Virgin), and blindly adore the saints, they omit, or slightly refer to the true Mediator; nor have they a just idea of God, or of his attributes. Yet, if I were to interfere, I should lose my church, and be pronounced an infidel. Education and good books, only, can remove the chain and fetters that superstition has riveted upon us,—a superstition as degrading to our moral as to our mental powers.”

It will be pleasing to contemplate the gentle and kind feelings that dictated the annexed letter; a letter far more honourable to the presentees than to the receiver, as it indicates a degree of sensibility, which, in England, has not been attributed to the Greeks. The supposed benefit was slight, very slight and limited, and arose from circumstances. What would not be their gratitude, if the English were really to confer the blessings of education, of good books, and of a benevolent example!


Although beneficence has its own reward, nor requires the gratitude of the person who is its object; yet, it would be both unjust and improper to be silent when the benefit conferred is productive of great advantages. We, the undersigned, have been thus benefited; nor can we in any better manner express the sentiment of our soul, not only because that, during your short residence here, you have instituted a school for our daughters (never before established); but, by its establishment on the most methodical principles, we have been enabled to observe, with great pleasure, the rapid progress of our children. We beseech you, then, to accept this present letter, which we would desire to convey the most ardent and perpetual signs of our acknowledgments for such an inestimable gift; and the evidence of that respect which each of us, and of our daughters, will ever entertain for you, and for those virtues which you have happily (for us) exhibited in this island.”

Ithaca, 4 December, 1825.
O. S. November 22d.

This letter was signed by twelve of the principal gentlemen of Ithaca; and, though we received it before our final departure, it was intended to be presented to us on board, as we sailed out of the harbour. Our separation
was affecting; the young people anxiously desired to follow us in boats, that they had procured; or I should rather say, which a warm-hearted friend provided for them; but our earnest entreaties induced them to give up the plan. The above letter was written in Greek and in Italian. The latter is the polite language, but
Dr. K. always insisted on the cultivation of the native tongue; nor had he a difficult task in persuading his friends, that this was far more rich and majestic, though it might occasionally be less mellifluous, than the Italian.

Dr. K. anticipated with pleasure his proposed return to Greece; his recollections of the country were associated with agreeable emotions, and he had hoped to have been the means of effecting more good than it was permitted to him to perform.

The following extracts from his letters to one or two friends will perhaps be read with interest.

Cephalonia, Nov. 1823.

“I continued with the officers who met with me, for five or six weeks, generally twice a week. At length I was placed in charge of the hospital—one or two got tired, I suppose, and did not attend—though they say they are still ready.

“After the first meeting, at which his lordship was present, he went into the country. For a long time I did not go out to visit him, as I could not perceive that I was called on to intrude my instructions on him; because, if he were in earnest, he could easily have informed me. Besides, my heavy duty at the hospital also prevented me for some time. I have now been out to Metaxata several times, and I regret that I did not go sooner. . . . . .

“I have now mentioned generally what I am doing with Lord B.; a particular account would not be compatible with the limits of a letter. There have been so many ridiculous stories spread about in the various islands, that I have no doubt but that some of them will reach the London papers. As his lordship is frank and confidential, I do not mention to any here the particulars of our interviews, for reasons arising both from the object I have in view, as well as from the circumstances in which his lordship is placed. It becomes us, therefore, to allow nothing to go forth to the world, which would appear to have had its origin with me, though distorted by the
various channels through which it had passed—as it would indicate a degree of vanity which would frustrate the desirable object, and destroy that high opinion which he has formed of the purity of my principles, and the real and sincere disinterestedness of my views. . . . . . I have, therefore, in all my correspondence, mentioned in one sentence, that I have had some interesting conversations with him. As, however, I trust entirely and unreservedly in you, as one friend ought to do with another—though indeed I would not trust all my friends as I do you—I shall, in my next, give a full and particular view of his lordship’s mind, and the nature and the results of our conversations. . . . .

“After all, in reality, it may strike you that this is being too cautious. I grant that the result may show that it is so, but at present I think not. In fact, there is nothing different in him from other unconverted men whom we daily see, except that he is a lord, and a great and wicked poet. I shall, I trust, do my duty towards him, leaving it, as we ought, in faith and humility. You know that I am not a timid man, nor afraid to speak my sentiments. I have done it freely to Lord B.; and while I have not forgotten the respect due to him, neither have I forgotten that he is a sinner,—and a great one,—and that he stands in immediate need of a Saviour. The books he reads are your old friend’s. . . . . I am not deterred from doing what good I can, though some here think his lordship is not sincere, and that he only wants to hear the cant phrases of the saints, and learn their
opinions, in order that he may hereafter introduce them. It may possibly be so, but I do not believe it; and even though it were, I will visit and write to his lordship, and only regret that I did not do so before. No ridicule will ever frighten me; and were this his intention, he is not the first man who commenced in ridicule, and terminated in earnest. Mention, therefore, what I have written, only to ——

W. de la C., Esq.

[to the same.]
March, 1824.

“I had promised to say much about Lord Byron, which, however, I must avoid for the present. You will the less regret this, if you are still in Malta when S., the bearer of this, arrives, as he was present at one or two interviews which I had with Lord B. . . Of Byron I augur favourably. I have received two letters from him since his departure, and two or three from Gamba, written at his lordship’s request. Lord B.’s is a curious character; I do not think it is generally clearly understood. I will not affirm that I have succeeded in unravelling it, but I certainly view it in a different light from that through which many persons contemplate it. I think much more highly of him in some respects, and less
of him in others, than most people seem to do; but, in judging of a man who speaks, writes, and acts as he does—for effect, it must be allowed that there is plenty of room for the phantasies of the imagination, when we attempt to scrutinize his motives. It would be well for him if he were surrounded by people of good principle and conduct,—for though he may naturally despise them all, yet the greatest mind is more or less affected by the society it keeps, even when it is the regulator and master-spirit of the whole. Good society produces a thousand good impressions at those moments when the mind is tranquil, and when the passions and the prejudices are not in immediate sway; and as this is the case with respect to all sorts of knowledge, so it is more directly the case with respect to religious knowledge. It is a blessing of heaven, therefore, for any one to be placed in a Christian, well principled, and moral society:—it is the reverse to be placed in contrary circumstances.”

[to the same.]
Ithaca, Sept. 1824.

“I have never fully informed you of my conversations with Lord B. It is now too late; but you will be acquainted with them all—not in writing, but in print. The moment he died, I formed the design of publishing
an account of the religious conversations I had with him and with others. I immediately communicated my resolution openly,—collected all the anecdotes I could which might in any way illustrate his character. To my surprise, I found my design warmly opposed by several of those gentlemen who were present at our first conversation. I assured them that I would not make use of their names, unless they wished it. I have now, however, found out the secret cause of this opposition, which, so far from discouraging, has the more fixed my determination to execute my purpose. In the mean time, these said gentlemen—I mean some of them—have been exceedingly busy in ridiculing, and, I am inclined to think, wilfully misrepresenting my object and views. At all events, a great many falsehoods, and many absurd stories, are spread about the islands on this subject. Some of them have reached the London press—as you will see me called a Missionary in the

“The simple state of the case is this. Before Byron came to Cephalonia, four officers had agreed to enter on the investigation of the doctrines of Christianity; Byron heard of it, and wished to be present. I had seven or eight meetings, at which he was not present; and I had seven or eight meetings with Byron alone. With one of the gentlemen I had conversations almost every day, for four months.

“My object is, to give a plain and faithful account of what took place at these meetings and conversations—Byron appears simply as one character. As every point
of religion was touched upon, and many objections stated and discussed, I intend to give as clear, simple, and forcible view of the leading doctrines of Christianity as I can, with a refutation of the principal objections which I have heard urged against it.

“As not one of the gentlemen have yet authorised me to use their names, I do not intend to describe what each said, or to delineate individual character. I shall only present a connected view of Christianity, in language divested of all pedantry, and of all tincture of theology. My object is not to prove Byron a Christian, nor to write about Byron particularly, but to take the opportunity which such meetings as we often held—and at which so singular a character as Byron was present—offer, to publish a work on Christianity written by a layman, with the hope of its being both interesting and useful. If I am not satisfied that it will be both, it shall never appear.

“I have no reason to believe that Byron was in the least degree converted; but I think, had he lived, he would have examined the subject. I was not surprised at the extent of his reading on religious subjects; I was surprised rather at his ignorance as much as I can be, since I have long been convinced that all unbelievers, however great their talents, are as ignorant as children, with respect to the real nature and doctrines of Christianity. This I know from a very wide experience. Let nothing of this be reported so as to be put into print, for they print all and everything about poor Byron now.
When my work is out, they will know my object, and learn something that will settle at once many an absurd tale, and many soi-disant wits will be compelled to keep silence.”

[to the same.]
Ithaca, January, 1825.

“I saw the article to which you allude, in the papers. There have been several others, all of them mutilated and imperfect, with a mixture of truth and falsehood. Yet they will so far be useful, as they will serve as a sort of advertisement of my book, and save me so much of expense; it will also serve as a justification of its being published, in order to correct the misrepresentations that have been made.

Mr. Hobhouse, one of Lord B.’s executors, has written me a polite letter on the subject, to which I gave, I hope, a satisfactory answer, explaining my object and views, and the nature of the work. An Appendix will contain the correspondence with Lord B. and others. The topics embraced are many, and those of the most important and difficult kind. I have directed all my attention to these subjects; and though some interest may be lost by delay, yet nothing shall induce me to compromise myself by hastening on a crude and imperfect work on such an occasion, and on such a subject. If
I succeed in the design I have chalked out, the work will be useful—if I am not satisfied that it is likely to prove so, I shall never publish it.”

[to the same.]
Ithaca, 14th April, 1825.

We received your letter three weeks ago, but the melancholy intelligence of the death of Mrs. K.’s twin brother which reached us, has prevented me from writing —even now Mrs. K. will not be able to write. Our afflictions within the last year have been great; they have burst on us as it were suddenly and unexpectedly—a few months before, her only sister died. We trust and pray that these trials may be sanctified, and tend to draw us more and more towards spiritual things, and detach us from all hope and dependence on a vain, perishing, and transitory world . . . . Two reasons have chiefly swayed me in wishing to avoid England at the present moment; first, lest, from the want of medical officers, I may be shipped off to the East Indies, in the bustle of sending reinforcements: and secondly, a desire to finish my work here, and have it ready to be put to the press the moment I arrive in England. You will wonder why I have been so long about it; but if you consider that, besides an account of Conversations with Byron and others, which it will not be difficult to give, I intend to
present a view of the external, but chiefly of the internal, evidences of Christianity, such as they appear to a well-educated layman, you will see the propriety, nay, the necessity, of much study and reflection. I shall give my opinion on every subject of Christian doctrine that is of importance, and the evidence on which it rests; and as I shall have to speak of, and point out the pernicious effects of the difference of opinion among professed Christians, it is necessary that I should go on sure and certain grounds, and this more particularly, as Christians will read the book in order to see what good has been done, or what it will effect, and Deists will read it from curiosity. I must endeavour, therefore, to present such a work as will be pleasing to the first, and useful, if possible, to the second class. I have now finished a very extensive course of reading; I have to put it into order, and digest the great mass of materials which I have collected, and to polish it up in the best style and manner of which I am capable. I have not yet determined what title it shall bear; this, however, is of very inferior moment. The object is to prepare a useful work, and if this be accomplished, an appropriate title can soon be devised.

“What a field for curious contemplation does the world present of a few wise men, and multitudes of fools,—of passing vanities, and idle shews,—and of the folly that still attaches to the best of us, in expecting so much from it after so much experience of its vanity!

“This little island is really a charming and beautiful
solitude, especially that part in which we reside; but, after a few months, at furthest, we shall in all probability relinquish it for the land of our fathers, where many whom we left flourishing and happy have gone down to the dust, while their souls are enjoying felicity above . . . . It is useless, however, to look back upon the past, or to dwell upon the present. The future is all. Our present light afflictions are but as nothing compared with the weight of future glory if we confide in God. Nay, painful as our trials may be, we are compelled to admit that they are necessary. Would an uninterrupted flow of health and happiness tend to our good?—on the contrary we feel that it is owing to the infinite wisdom of God that the hopes and expectations of Christians are disappointed here; that they are tried, afflicted, purified, and chastised from the tenderest love and mercy. We profess to be dead to the things of this life, and alive in Christ. If we really are so, the changes of life cannot much affect us, except so far as that we should profit by them—renounce all worldly passions, and endeavour to become more vigorous in our spiritual life. Without these trials, the things of this world would please us too much, we should wish to continue always in it; and our belief of heavenly realities would be faint and weak, and our heart would belie our profession of faith—which, indeed, it very often virtually does.

Mullingar, Aug. 10th, 1826.

“I have spent a good deal of time on my book since I came here, and am just beginning to make a fair copy of it. I have read since I came here,—first, Parry’s Account of the last month of Lord Byron’s life: second, Gamba’s ditto: third, Blaquiere’s ditto: fourth, Anecdotes of Lord B.: fifth, Dallas’s Recollections of Lord B.: sixth, Madame Beloe on Lord Byron, in two volumes, French. In all these, except Dallas’s, my conversations are mentioned, and placed in a false and ridiculous point of view. I have also read some of Byron’s works, which I had not seen before, in order to enable me to form a more correct estimate of his character. The more I read and consider, the more I am convinced that every word I say should be weighed, and just and true. The subject will, from idleness or curiosity, cause many to look into the book; and it is a heavy duty on me to take care, if my book does not produce any positive good, that at least it will produce no evil or scandal. B. is represented as a man of mighty intellect and great knowledge of the Scriptures—that he astonished and perplexed me—and put to flight, by one attack, all my arguments, and consequently, my attempt was an absurd and silly one. I must prove, in fact, that I am no fool, which is rather a difficult thing to do, when one writes a book. I shall keep this object in view, and endeavour to accomplish it, at the risk of being deemed lazy and dilatory.”

G. F. D., Esq.
Belfast, Oct. 30th, 1826.

Since I came to England I have travelled about nine hundred miles by land, and I have been so unsettled, and so much engaged in public duties, that I have had but little time to attend to my work: but the bustle appearing to be nearly over, with some prospect of our remaining here during the winter, I mean to set about preparing it for publication. I have changed the plan of it a good deal. I feel some apprehension of the remarks and censures to which I shall expose myself, as these will certainly be made by all anti-religious editors: but though this prospect renders me, perhaps, a little more tardy, it will not have the effect of altering, in the least degree, my firm determination to publish. What good, or what success will follow, time will shew. I sincerely trust it may do good; if this did not appear probable, I would suppress it.”

W. de la C.

December 23rd, 1826.

“I have this moment received orders to proceed to Newry without delay, and embark immediately with a detachment of the 91st, for Jamaica. This has come suddenly and unexpectedly; but I trust we can yield, and with sincerity say, ‘Blessed be the name of the Lord;’ however opposed his dispensations may be to our desires,
—his will be done. Poor
Mrs. K.’s state of health renders it most hazardous to undertake a long winter’s voyage. You can judge what we feel on the present occasion . . .

“I was busy with my book, and read a part of it. This order will again interrupt it; when it will be finished I know not, but I shall direct my whole attention to it, lest any event happen to myself in the climate whither Providence sends me.

“I shall think of you when we are far distant. Make mention of me in your prayers—we require each other’s remembrance at the Throne of Grace, for the trials of life are numerous and various; all is well, however, to those who love the Lord Jesus. May God bless my dear friend, and make your future life useful and honourable.

Yours affectionately.”
G. F. D., Esq.

Jamaica, Stony Hill, March, 1827.

“I view this beautiful country with a sort of distrust and dislike, as if death lurked under every blooming tree, and amidst the blossoming flowers—yet I have a feeling of perfect confidence in God. I am an exile here, waiting literally till God, in his providence shall conduct me from this pestilential abode to England.

“Kingston is the largest town in the island—there are troops at Port Royal, and Up-Park camp, two miles from
Kingston. There are also detachments at Fort Augusta, and Fort Henderson: all these are on the sea-shore; behind these a plain, of ten miles in extent, opens, with trees and sugar-canes; at the end of this plain the mountains commence, on the top of the first line of which, situated eight hundred feet above the level of the sea, are Stony-Hill Barracks. The air is more pure, and of course the degree of temperature is less than in any of the towns on the plains, of which we command a complete view. The whole country is mountainous, and covered with trees of every variety, from the top of the highest mountain which is eight thousand feet above the level of the sea.—There are four thousand species of plants.

“The white inhabitants never associate with the Creoles; the latter, whatever be their wealth, cannot enter a ball-room. There are only twenty thousand whites, while there are four or five hundred thousand blacks.”

“6th July.

“I am exceedingly engaged. We are now in the rainy season. For the last six weeks we have had rain daily, generally accompanied with thunder, the reverberations of which are exceedingly grand as it rolls and reechoes among the hills by which we are surrounded. We have a heavy shower for an hour or two, and then the sun breaks out and dries everything in a moment. The rains have kept it very cool, that is to say, the morn-
ings and evenings are cool, but when the sun shines it is oppressively hot: these vicissitudes are dangerous. The whole face of the country presents an unvarying verdure, and the most astonishing luxuriance of vegetation: the smell is varied; now pleasing, now heavy, and too much for freedom of ventilation, and for the purity of the air.

“If you were to walk out at night, you would think the whole country was filled with animated creatures; your ears are stunned with the noise of insects, frogs, toads, serpents, and other reptiles. Few snakes have appeared near us, but I should not desire to walk through the impenetrable forests that surround us; though the negroes do so barefooted. I asked one whom I found buried among the trees whether he was not afraid of snakes: ‘No.’—‘Why?’—‘Because they are afraid of me, and glide away as fast as they can.’—‘But what if you trampled upon one unawares?’—‘Then it will bite me,’ said the poor fellow with the greatest indifference. . . .

“The 84th regiment that came out with us has lost three officers, and a great many men: the disease continues with them. The heaviest sickness and mortality prevail among the merchant sailors, many of these have died. The navy always run out to sea . . . . Our trials are yet to come, but I have no fear. I trust that the same God who has hitherto so mercifully preserved and blessed me will still spare my life . . . As I cast my eye downwards on the beautiful verdant plain between this and Kingston, I could not help contrasting the fine and pleasing aspect of the country with the extent of sick-
ness and death that at this reason generally prevails . . . To those who believe that there is no chance, death can neither be accelerated nor postponed by any arrangement of ours; hence it is better to confide and trust in God, to yield ourselves, our lives, and death and salvation, wholly to him in Christ.

Up Park Camp, August 31st.
(Closed on the 3rd September, 1827.)

“I told you in my last, that the sickly season had commenced with the 84th regiment at Fort Augusta. Six officers of this regiment have died, and about one hundred and thirty men. The fever increased so rapidly, that the government here was under the necessity of ordering them up an once to encamp at Stony-Hill, leaving all the sick behind them. They were put under canvas; unfortunately, the third day after they went up a terrible hurricane took place, with a whole day of heavy rain. Their tents were blown down. This mischief hastened the death of many of the men, and the next day thirteen were buried at Stony-Hill, and three at Fort Augusta—being, in one day, sixteen deaths in one regiment. They were thrown into their graves without coffins, as there was no time to make them. All the sick of this regiment are left behind at Fort Augusta, except a few who have survived, and have been sent up
hither; there remains no one except the medical officer, who continues to take charge of the officers and regimental luggage which were left behind. The measure of moving the troops has, however, been beneficial, and reflects great credit on Mr. Tully, who proposed it. As the regiment have now prepared huts for themselves, they are now beginning to recover from the panic with which they had been seized. Two officers’ widows have been left; one with four children. The 22nd have been very kind and attentive to the unfortunate 84th.

“The fever has begun in this camp among the 33rd, and with the detachment of Artillery, in the 22nd and in ft company of the 94th, and of late three or four have died daily. While I now write, I see a corpse carried by four black pioneers, and six soldiers following it to the grave. Within the last month forty have died in this camp. As the fever is daily increasing, the detachment of the 22nd will march on Monday, and the remaining company of the 84th goes to-morrow, in order to give room.—I said one coffin, as they come nearer I see there are two.

“The sickness is not in any way severe among the natives; and as for the blacks, they are seldom affected with fever. This reminds me of the remark of Sterne, ‘God tempers the wind to the shorn lamb.’ . . . At this moment four medical men are absent from the island, who ought to be present; and besides this, while I now write, five medical officers lie sick. You may conceive the duty which we, who by the blessing of God remain well, have to perform. . . . There are only
three medical officers in the camp who are capable of performing their duty. I have a whole hospital to take charge of myself, with ninety-five patients. Besides these, I have out-patient officers, women, and children. After toiling through the day, I am often called up at night: I have no time to read or write. Some days I have not time to read my usual portion of the Scriptures. I spend part of the day in the field-hospital to study the disease.

“The weather is hot, but by no means so hot as it is close and sultry. The thermometer is between 84° and 87° in the shade. The air is hazy and foggy, just like a sirocco. The mornings and evenings are beautiful, and the country looks so still, so pleasing, and fresh, that it excites one’s surprise to think of the contrast of quiet and beauty which it exhibits, with the misery, wretchedness, sickness, and death, which prevail among the inhabitants. You will rejoice with me, and render thanks unto God for his mercy in preserving me in such perfect health. It is of his mercy that I am spared. . . . So confident do I feel, that I have a sort of excitement and astonishment at the scenes which I witness: and, though I endeavour to keep my mind serious, and grave, and sober, and take warning by the judgments of God that are displayed before my eyes, yet at times I cannot extinguish the exulting and confident feeling that I am one to whom God will abundantly shew his mercy and compassion. These considerations make me more active in endeavouring to alleviate the sufferings of the sick.
From the numerous deaths and sickness, almost everything is in confusion, and we have great difficulties in carrying on our duties. The men are either frightened, or insolent, or desperate and careless. Many of the officers talk in a bravadoing style: swearing and drinking, and go on as before. Few take it to heart to consider their ways before God, to amend them, and to avert his judgments and vengeance, by flying to Christ as their refuge. . . . .

“. . . The only inconvenience I feel is, that from walking so much in the sun, and from the fatigue of the duty, my head beats at night as though I were in a fever. I am long before I can get to sleep. However, thank God, I always rise with a grateful heart, very fresh, to the labours of the day.”

“3rd Sept.

“T. is no more: may his soul have been saved by the blood of Christ!” Speaking of some individuals who had suffered bereavements, he adds,—“May their afflictions be sanctified! We cannot sufficiently praise the tenderness and goodness of God in our case. . . . . To-day a letter arrived from Sir James M’Grigor, directed to Mr. Tully, to send me home by the first opportunity. W. had only time to congratulate me, and to say, that under the heavy sickness, and scarcity of medical officers, I could not go at present. Of course I
shall be sent home with the first transport. This is a time when a physician must exert himself. I will not flinch from duty. . . . I could not leave in the midst of such sickness, when medical men are so few, and their services so much required. . . I trust you will be more cheerful and full of hope.”

Kingston, Jamaica, Oct. 4th, 1827.
Dear Sir,

“It is with deep concern that I have to communicate the death of Dr. Kennedy, which took place on the 18th of last month, after an illness of three days, with, yellow fever: he died at Up-Park Camp. . . He received, some days previously to his illness, a notification that he was to return to Europe by the first opportunity. He was, certainly, not one whom I should have thought likely to suffer from the fever; but I fear the great fatigue and responsibility of the charge he lately had, in a climate like this, must prove more or less injurious to an European constitution.

“I most sincerely lament his death; it is a great loss to the medical department of the army, and to the world. The officers of the 22nd regiment at Stony Hill, to which station he was some time attached, could not express themselves with greater sorrow, had they known him for years: in fact, every one who had the pleasure
of his acquaintance, could not but estimate him very highly. It is only a few weeks since he came from Stony Hill on duty, with Mr. Tully, and slept at my house. We spent that evening at Mr. T.’s, and as we three were the only persons present, it is melancholy to me to think that I am the only one now surviving. . . .

Yours, &c.
H. B. B.”