LORD  BYRON  and  his  TIMES
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The Life of William Roscoe
Vol II. Contents

Vol I. Contents
Chapter I. 1753-1781
Chapter II. 1781-1787
Chapter III. 1787-1792
Chapter IV. 1788-1796
Chapter V. 1795
Chapter VI. 1796-1799
Chapter VII. 1799-1805
Chapter IX. 1806-1807
Chapter X. 1808
Chapter XI. 1809-1810
‣ Vol II. Contents
Chapter XII. 1811-1812
Chapter XIII. 1812-1815
Chapter XIV. 1816
Chapter XV. 1817-1818
Chapter XVI. 1819
Chapter XVII. 1820-1823
Chapter XVIII. 1824
Chapter XIX. 1825-1827
Chapter XX. 1827-1831
Chapter XXI.
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1811, 1812.
Mr. Roscoe’s opinions on Reform in Parliament—letter to the Duke of Gloucester.—Mr. Brougham’s letter on this subject—Mr. Roscoe’s reply, published at Mr. Brougham’s request.—Plans of the reformers of that day.—Mr. Brougham’s views.—Mr. Roscoe dissents—his reasons—his own views stated—ultimately realised in many particulars.—Answer by Mr. Merritt to Mr. Roscoe’s letter—Mr. Roscoe’s reply—his sentiments on the use of influence in the House of Commons—his desire for union amongst the reformers—letter to an illustrious correspondent.—Trade with India.—Letter to Mr. Whitbread—he writes fully on the subject to Mr. Creevey.—Public meeting at Liverpool to oppose the renewal of the charter.—Resolutions drawn up by Mr. Roscoe, and adopted.—Letter to the Duke of Gloucester thereon.—General election of 1812.—Proposals made to Mr. Roscoe by electors of Westminster, which he declines—is put in nomination at Leicester—address to the electors of that borough.—Election at Liverpool.—Mr. Brougham and Mr. Creevey jointly supported by the reformers.—Mr. Canning opposes them, and succeeds.—Mr. Roscoe’s sentiments as to compromise participated by Mr. Brougham.—Mr. Canning’s speeches.—“Review” of them published by Mr. Roscoe.—Character of Mr. Brougham.—Prospects at this time of reform.
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Alterations at Allerton Hall.—Mr. Roscoe’s illness—his study of bibliography—letter to Dr. Dibdin respecting a Life of Erasmus—projected account of his library and other collections—letter to Dr. Smith—verses on the Liverpool election of 1812—his intention of writing the Life of Dr. Currie—letter to Dr. Wright—projects a translation of Lanzi—papers in the Transactions of the Linnaean Society—is elected an honorary member of the New York Historical Society—acquaintance with Mr. Owen of Lanark—letter to him.—Prince Sandars.—Visit of Miss Aikin to Allerton.—Mr. Roscoe’s taste for agricultural pursuits—communication to the Agricultural Society of West Derby-cultivation of Chat Moss—communication to the Board of Agriculture—letter to Sir John Sinclair—thanks of the board.—Letter from General Dirom—allusion to his cultivation of Chat Moss in Mrs. Barbauld’s “Eighteen Hundred and Eleven”—letter to her—acquaintance with Mr. Tollet and Mr. Wilbraham—letter from the latter.—Invitations to Holkham.—Letters from Dr. Smith.—Visit to Holkham.—The collection of MSS. there—undertakes the arrangement of them—bound by Mr. Jones of Liverpool.—Letters from Mr. Wilbraham and Mr. Coke.—Poem of “Holkham.”—Letter from Mr. Coke to Sir J. Smith.—Presentation of the “Life of Leo” to Mr. Coke, and sonnet.—Letter from the Bishop of Norwich to Sir J. Smith.—“The Return.”—Visit of Mr. Coke and Dr. Parr at Allerton.
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Pecuniary embarrassments of Mr. Roscoe.—Letter to Mr. M’Creery.—General meeting of creditors.—Report of the committee.—Settlement of the affairs undertaken by Mr. Roscoe.—Sonnet, expressing his feelings at this time.—
Sympathy of his friends.—Letter from Sir J. E. Smith.—Sale of his library, pictures, &c.—Sonnet on parting with them.—Sonnets addressed to him.—Catalogue of the library prepared—its principal contents.—The sale of the books.—Purchase of books by his friends for his use.—Mr. Shepherd’s letter.—Mr. Roscoe’s reply.—Books presented to the Athenæum.—Sale of the prints—description of them.—Sale of pictures and drawings—their nature and value.—Picture of Leo X., with the Cardinals Giulio de’ Medici and Rossi.—Its history—attributed to Andrea del Sarto.—Madonna and Child by Ghirlandajo, with a frieze by Michelagnolo.—Pictures by Fuseli.—Painting of the death of Lorenzo de’ Medici by him.—Letters from him respecting it.—Purchased by an unknown person, and presented to Mr. Roscoe.—Series of pictures bought by several gentlemen and presented to the Athenæum.—Letter from Mr. Singer—John Gibson the sculptor—letter from him.—Mr. Roscoe’s reply.—Letter from Mr. Gibson at Rome.—He presents a bust of Mr. Roscoe to the Liverpool Royal Institution.—Mr. Reynolds of Bristol—his death.—Letter to Mr. W. Rathbone on that occasion, and to Mrs. Rathbone.—Verses to his memory.

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1817, 1818.
Meeting for the establishment of the Liverpool Royal Institution.—Report drawn up by Mr. Roscoe.—Introductory lecture delivered by him—printed by request of the committee.—Letters from Mr. Shepherd and from Dr. Aikin, on this occasion—Resigns the office of President of the Literary and Philosophical Society of Liverpool.—His contributions to that society.—Essay on the Application of the Principles of Morality to the Intercourse of States.—Is elected a member of the Philadelphia Linnaean Society—Correspondence with Sir Joseph Banks on Miss M’Avoy’s pretensions to the faculty of discriminating colours by the touch.—Tract on penal jurisprudence meditated.
Hymns contributed by Mr. Roscoe to the Collection for the use of Protestant Dissenters.—Anthem—set to music by Mr. Webbe.—Proposal to him to write a History of the State of Europe—declined.—He communicates with M. La Fayette through Mr. M’Creery.—Interview of the latter with M. La Fayette.—Letter from M. La Fayette to Mr. Roscoe—his reply—his regret that he had been unable to carry into effect his more extended views.—Lines expressive of his deep feeling on this subject.
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The nature and objects of punishment.—Mr. Roscoe’s attention turned to the question.—Publication of his “Observations on Penal Jurisprudence and the Reformation of Offenders.”—His idea of the true guiding principle—of secondary punishments.—Consideration of the penitentiary system—Apathy of the public mind to this subject.—Letter to Dr. Parr, with copy of the tract—to Mr. Basil Montagu.—He derives assistance from America through Mr. Thomas Eddy—letter to him.—Article in the Edinburgh Review against Prison Discipline controverted by Mr. Roscoe in “Additional Observations.”—Solitary confinement in America opposed in this tract—copy sent to Mr. Jeffrey—letter to him.—Corresponds with Mr. Livingston and other distinguished Americans.—Letter from Mr. Bradford, Governor of Massachusetts state prison.—Letter to Sir James Mackintosh—his reply—his remarks in the House of Commons—letter to him from Mr. Roscoe thereon.—Reforms in Denmark Letter from Mr. Thorkelin of Copenhagen.—Publication of “Observations,” Part III.—Letter to Sir James Mackintosh—to Mr. Dumont.—Publication of “Remarks on the Report of the Commissioners for Visiting the Prisons of New York,” &c.—Letter to Dr. Southwood Smith—to M. la Fayette, then in America—his reply.—Controversy with Mr. Allen of New York and others.—Publication of Letter to him on Penitentiary Discipline.
Series of Letters to Mr. Vaux, Dr. Mease, and Mr. Allen, published in the Liverpool newspapers.—Change of opinion in the United States in favour of reformatory discipline.—Mr. Roscoe expresses his pleasure, in a letter to Dr. Hosack of New York.
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Termination of the affairs of Mr. Roscoe in bankruptcy.—Letters to Mr. M’Creery and Sir J. E. Smith.—His certificate disputed.—He retires to Chat Moss.—Recurs to the perusal of the Italian poets.—Translation from Dante.—His attention again drawn to penal jurisprudence.—Letter expressing his motives for the promulgation of his opinions.—His hesitation between continuing in active life or retiring.—Letter considering and determining this doubt.—Allowance of his certificate.—He returns to Liverpool—retires finally from business.—Sum of money raised for him by his friends.—He again visits Holkham.—Letters from that place—Literary projects—visits London—letters from thence—prepares a Catalogue of the MSS. at Holkham—letters to Mr. M’Creery, describing his labours—to his daughter.—Lines to Lady Anson on her birthday.—Letter to Mrs. Rathbone—returns to Liverpool—receives proposals to publish a series of the Italian authors.—Letters to Mr. Valpy—to Sir J. E. Smith.—Publication of the “Illustrations of the Life of Lorenzo de’ Medici.”—Writers whom he refutes—M. Sismondi and others.—It is translated into Italian by S. Pecchioli—letter to him.—Letter from M. Sismondi.—Mr. Roscoe’s reply—becomes acquainted with M. Sismondi.—Publication of the “Memoir of Richard Roberts Jones,” and account of him.—Letter to Dr. Parr.—Anecdotes of R. R. Jones—his portrait, etched by Mrs. Dawson Turner.—Letter to Mr. D. Turner.—Sonnet, written while publishing the Memoirs of R. R. Jones.—Mr. Roscoe removes to Lodge Lane—letter to his daughter.—Dr. Aikin—letters to him on the publication of the “Life of Huet,” &c.—Mr. Roscoe’s contri-
butions to the Athenæum.—Death of Dr. Aikin.—Letter to Miss Aikin.—He proceeds with the “Life of Pope.”—Again visits Holkham.—Letters from that place.—Liverpool Society for promoting the Abolition of Slavery.—Mr. Roscoe chosen president.—Draws up a declaration of the objects of the Society.—His views as to the best mode of effecting emancipation.
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Death of Mrs. Roscoe.—Verses addressed to her at different times by Mr. Roscoe.—Letter from Mr. M’Creery on occasion of her death.—Sonnet addressed to her in early life by her son.—Letter from Mr. Roscoe to Dr. Wallich.—Mr. Roscoe resumes the study of botany, and particularly of the Monandrian plants.—His new arrangement of the plants of the Monandrian class, usually called Scitamineae, referred to by Sir J. E. Smith in Dr. Rees’s Cyclopædia.—Letter from Sir J. E. Smith on the merits of this arrangement.—Name of “Roscoea” given by him to a new order of Scitaminean Plants.—Present of plants to the Botanic Garden from Dr. Wallich.—Correspondence of Mr. Roscoe with him.—Projected publication of Specimens of the Scitaminean plants.—Mr. Roscoe is elected an Honorary Associate of the Royal Society of Literature, and afterwards an Associate of the First Class—receives the gold medal of the Society—is elected Corresponding Member of the Academy della Crusca.—Letter of the Secretary, with the diploma.—Mr. Roscoe’s reply—is elected Member of the New York Horticultural Society—visits London again—letter to his daughter.

Edition of the Works of Pope, and new Life.—Letter on this subject to Mr. Mathias.—Merits of former editors.—Prefatory remarks by Mr. Roscoe—Sources from which he derived new information.—Principle adopted by him in suppressing certain pieces.—Original Letters furnished by
J. L. Anderdon, Esq.—Controversy with Mr. Bowles.—His “Final Appeal to the Literary Public,” &c.—answered by Mr. Roscoe in his “Letter to the Rev. W. Lisle Bowles.”—Review of the new edition, in the Quarterly Review.—Mr. Bowles publishes his “Lessons in Criticism to W. Roscoe, Esq.,” &c.— Extract from a reply prepared, but not published, by Mr. Roscoe.—His comparative estimate of the characters of Pope and Swift.—Mr. Fuseli—first acquaintance with him—letters from him respecting the Milton Gallery—on Mr. Roscoe’s election, &c.—his death—his biography by Mr. Knowles.—Letter to Mr. Knowles.—Correspondence with C. Hughes, Esq., Chargé d’affaires from the United States to Brussels.—Letter to him from Mr. Odevaere, the historical painter, sent to Mr. Roscoe.—Letter to Mr. Hughes.—Decline of Mr. Roscoe’s health.—Letter from him to Sir J. E. Smith.—New edition of “Lorenzo de’ Medici” and “Leo the Tenth.”—Use made by Mr. Roscoe of the notes and illustrations of foreign translators and writers.—Present from the Grand Duke of Tuscany of a new edition of the Poetical Works of Lorenzo.—Letter from Mr. Roscoe in acknowledgment.
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Increasing infirmities of Mr. Roscoe.—Letter to Sir J. E. Smith.—Completion of the Holkham catalogue.—His remaining literary undertakings.—Is attacked with paralysis—causes of the attack.—Persists in preparing for the press his “Letters on Prison Discipline.”—Mode of life after his attack.—Description of his study.—Sonnet to him.—His mode of employing his time.—Letter to Mr. Dawson Turner.—His warmth of feeling unchanged.—His feelings with regard to his own state.—His interest in political events:—repeal of the Corporation and Test Acts—Catholic emancipation—the Revolution of July.—His letter to La Fayette, interceding for the French ministers.—Letter to Mr. Coke on the same subject.—Formation of Lord Grey’s ministry, and letter to Lord Brougham.—Completion of all his literary labours.—Publication of the last number of his “Monandriau Plants.”—Opinions
of celebrated botanists on that work.—Loss of his friends.—Death of Sir J. E. Smith.— His surviving friends:—Professor Smyth—the Rev. W. Shepherd.—Dedication by the latter, of his poems.—Mr. Panizzi.—Letter to Mr. Rogers.—Opinion of the “Life of Dr. Currie.”—Projects a publication of his poems.—Letter to Dr. Hosack of New York.—Letter to Rammohun Roy, and interview with him.—Letter to Lord Brougham.—Mr. Roscoe’s last illness and death.
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Mr. Roscoe’s life a useful example.—His moral qualities—his consistency in politics—in his religious opinions—in his tastes and pursuits—in his attachment to works of art and poetry—in his friendships.—The reward of consistency.—His humility—his ambition, and love of literary fame—his own feelings with regard to the success of his writings—his humanity—his charity.—Devotional feelings of Mr. Roscoe—his early study of the Scriptures.—Letter on the presentation of a Bible to him.—His religious poems—hymn—sentiments on religious liberty.—Mr. Roscoe’s political opinions—his enlarged and liberal views—objects of his political exertions—political poems—lines.—Mr. Roscoe’s acquirements as a scholar—his acquaintance with the Classical languages—with the modern languages—his taste in English poetry—his knowledge of botany—his love of the fine arts—his promotion of literary and scientific institutions—his power of generalisation—his energy in literary pursuits.—Mr. Roscoe’s friends in early life—in middle age—his associates in political and local improvements—his political friends—the friends acquired by his philanthropic exertions—by his literary character.—Mr. Coke of Norfolk.—Distinguished foreigners—Americans, Italians—his botanical friends.—The grounds upon which his friendships rested—his demeanour in society.—Mr. Roscoe’s domestic character.—Poems addressed to him by his children.